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风暴潮本文重定向自 风暴潮

风暴潮(storm surge)

风暴潮或称暴潮(英语:storm surge)是由热带气旋温带气旋、冷锋的强风作用和气压骤变等强烈的天气系统引起的海面异常上升现象,又称“风暴增水”、“风暴海啸”、“气象海啸”或“风潮”。风暴潮会使受到影响的海区的潮位大大地超过正常。如果风暴潮恰好与影响海区涨潮相重叠,就会使水位暴涨,海水涌进内陆,造成巨大破坏。如1845年7月11日:树苓湖(象鼻湖)一带(今云林县口湖乡台子村南边)发生大水,造成周边聚落(下湖街、新港庄、箔仔寮、蚶仔寮、竹苗寮、虾仔寮、竹达寮)重创,死亡人数官方保守估计达3千人之多。日后因此事件而发展出口湖牵水藏的习俗。1953年2月发生在荷兰沿岸的强大风暴潮,使水位高出正常潮位3米多。洪水冲毁了防护堤,淹没土地80万英亩,导致2000余人死亡。英国最严重的风暴潮发生在1953年,英格兰东海岸大部分地区遭受袭击,304人死亡。1970年11月12-13日发生在孟加拉湾沿岸地区的一次风暴潮,曾导致30余万人死亡和100多万人无家可归。1962年,台风温黛在香港吐露港引发严重风暴潮。2013年,台风海燕侵袭菲律宾礼智省独鲁万市,导致1万人以上死亡。

风暴潮不同于海啸风浪(波涛)、长浪(涌浪)和异常巨浪。而海啸是当地震发生于海底,因震波的动力而引起形成的强大波浪;风浪是风吹在当地水体上引起的波浪;长浪是远处的风,或已经过去的风所引起的波浪;异常巨浪是长浪的一种,然而它的成因目前还没有确实定论。

参考

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外部链接


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