万维百科

鲔鱼本文重定向自 金槍魚

金枪鱼
化石时期:伊普雷斯期至今
56.0–0 Ma
[1]
Tuna assortment.png
各种金枪鱼(从最上方开始):长鳍金枪鱼北方蓝鳍金枪鱼黄鳍金枪鱼短鲔
科学分类
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 辐鳍鱼纲 Actinopteri
目: 鲭形目 Scombriformes
科: 鲭科 Scombridae
亚科: 鲭亚科 Scombrinae
族: 金枪鱼族 Thunnini
Starks, 1910

金枪鱼(香港作吞拿鱼,台湾作鲔鱼),是一种海水鱼类,属于鲭科下面的金枪鱼学名Thunnini)。本族包含515金枪鱼[2],各物种之间大小变化很大,最小的金枪鱼是圆舵鲣,其最大长度为50 cm(1.6英尺),重量为1.8千克(4磅);最大的金枪鱼则是北方蓝鳍金枪鱼,其最大长度为4.6米(15英尺),重量为684千克(1,508磅),平均长度为2米(6.6英尺),据信其寿命可以长达50岁。

金枪鱼、月鱼属以及鼠鲨目是目前仅存可将体温维持在比周围水体温度高的物种。金枪鱼是一种活跃而敏捷的食肉动物,该物种拥有光滑的流线型身体,也是游动速度最快的远洋鱼类之一;举例,黄鳍金枪鱼的游动速度可达75 km/h(47 mph)[3]。金枪鱼可在温暖海域发现,成为一种大量商业捕捞的鱼类,也是钓鱼活动当中的一种受欢迎鱼类。由于人类的过度捕捞蓝鳍金枪鱼等部分金枪鱼物种已接近灭绝危机[4]

词源

金枪鱼的英语“tuna”衍生自古希腊语θύννοςthýnnos中世纪拉丁语格式Thunnus──而该词又衍生自θύνωthýnō,“匆忙、飞奔”之意[5][6]

然而,英文种“tuna”的直接来源为美洲西班牙语,并依序源自西班牙语atún”、安达卢西亚阿拉伯语英语Andalusian Arabicat-tūn”(同化于阿拉伯语的التون‎,al-tūn,现代阿拉伯语为التن‎),然后再往前才是自上述提及之希腊语和拉丁文之来源[7]

分类

金枪鱼族为单系群演化支,包含5个及15个物种:

  • 鲭科
    • 金枪鱼族:金枪鱼
      • 细鲣属:细鲣,英语称细金枪鱼(slender tuna
      • 舵鲣属:扁舵鲣,英语称扁舵金枪鱼(frigate tuna
      • 巴鲣属英语Euthynnus:巴鲣,英语称小金枪鱼(little tuna
      • 鲣属:正鲣,英语称(skipjack tuna
      • 金枪鱼属:长鳍金枪鱼(albacore)、真金枪鱼(true tuna

注释

  1. ^ Tribe Thunnini Starks 1910. PBDB. [2019-06-16]. (原始内容存档于2019-01-21).
  2. ^ Graham, Jeffrey B.; Dickson, Kathryn A. Tuna Comparative Physiology. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 2004, 207 (23): 4015–4024. PMID 15498947. doi:10.1242/jeb.01267.
  3. ^ Block, Barbara A.; Booth, David; Carey, Francis G. Direct measurement of swimming speeds and depth of blue marlin (PDF). Journal of Experimental Biology. 1992, 166: 267–284 [19 September 2012]. ISSN 0022-0949.
  4. ^ Collette B and 8 others. Thunnus maccoyii. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011. [9 January 2015]. "This species has been intensively fished since the early 1950s. Its generation length is conservatively estimated to be 12 years. Estimated spawning stock biomass has declined approximately 85% over the past 36 years (1973–2009) and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding. It is therefore listed as Critically Endangered. Implementation of effective conservation and management measures are urgently needed."
  5. ^ θύννος in Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by Jones, Sir Henry Stuart, with the assistance of McKenzie, Roderick. Oxford: Clarendon Press. In the Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.
  6. ^ θύνω in Liddell and Scott.
  7. ^ Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. American Heritage Dictionary Entry: tuna. ahdictionary.com. [2019-06-16]. (原始内容存档于2015-05-24).

参考文献

  • Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How Overfishing Is Changing the World and What We Eat英语The End of the Line (book). Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7
  • FAO: Species Catalog Vol. 2 Scombrids of the World. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 2. FIR/S125 Vol. 2.ISBN 92-5-101381-0
  • FAO: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources: Tuna and tuna-like species – Global, 2005 Rome.
  • Majkowski, Jacek (1995) "Tuna and tuna-like species" In: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources, FAO Fisheries technical paper 457, FAO, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-107023-9.
  • Majkowski J, Arrizabalaga H, Carocci F and Murua H (2011) "Tuna and tuna-like species" In: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources, pages 227–244, FAO Fisheries technical paper 569, FAO, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-107023-9.
  • Standard of Identity for Canned Tuna (United States), Code of Federal Regulations: 21 CFR 161.190 – Canned tuna.
  • Viñas J and Tudela S (2009) "A validated methodology for genetic identification of tuna species (genus Thunnus)" PLoS One, 4(10): e7606.

外部链接


本页面最后更新于2021-06-11 22:11,点击更新本页查看原网页。台湾为中国固有领土,本站将对存在错误之处的地图、描述逐步勘正。

本站的所有资料包括但不限于文字、图片等全部转载于维基百科(wikipedia.org),遵循 维基百科:CC BY-SA 3.0协议

万维百科为维基百科爱好者建立的公益网站,旨在为中国大陆网民提供优质内容,因此对部分内容进行改编以符合中国大陆政策,如果您不接受,可以直接访问维基百科官方网站


顶部

如果本页面有数学、化学、物理等公式未正确显示,请使用火狐或者Safari浏览器