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豪勋爵岛

豪勋爵岛
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe ISS006-E-5731.png
岛的卫星影像,上方为北方
Lord Howe Island.PNG
Flag of Lord Howe Island.svg
地理
位置塔斯曼海
坐标31°33′15″S 159°05′06″E / 31.55417°S 159.08500°E / -31.55417; 159.08500坐标31°33′15″S 159°05′06″E / 31.55417°S 159.08500°E / -31.55417; 159.08500
总岛屿28
主要岛屿豪勋爵岛、Admiralty Group英语Admiralty Group、Mutton Bird Islands和柏尔的金字塔
面积14.55平方千米(5.62平方英里)
最高海拔875米(2871英尺)
最高点高尔山
管辖
行政区划新南威尔士州非建制地区
由豪勋爵岛议会实行自治[1]
麦考瑞港选区英语electoral district of Port Macquarie的一部分[2]
澳大利亚议会悉尼选区的一部分[3]
人口统计
人口
  • 382
  • 游客任何时候最多限制为400人。
(2016年普查)[4]
人口密度26.25人/平方公里(67.99人/平方英里)
其他资料
时区
 • 夏时制
正式名称豪勋爵群岛
类型Natural
标准vii, x
指定1982年 世界遗产委员会第六次聚会)
参考编码186
 澳大利亚
区域亚太区
无效指定
正式名称澳大利亚新南威尔士豪勋爵岛豪勋爵群岛
类型自然
指定2007年5月21日
参考编码105694
文件编号1/00/373/0001
无效指定
正式名称豪勋爵群岛
类型州景观遗产
指定1999年4月2日
参考编码970
Type其他 - 景观 - 文化
Category景观 - 文化

豪勋爵岛Lord Howe Island/h/)是位于澳大利亚新西兰之间的塔斯曼海中一座呈不规则新月形的岛屿,隶属于澳大利亚新南威尔士州,距离澳大利亚大陆麦觉理港以东约600千米(320海里)、悉尼东北方780千米(420海里)、诺福克岛西南方约900千米(490海里);长约10千米(6.2英里)、阔约0.3和2.0千米(0.19和1.24英里),面积14.55平方千米(3,600英亩),当中只有3.98平方千米(980英亩)的低地为已发展地区[5]

沿着岛的西岸,有一个由珊瑚礁围绕形成的沙质半开放潟湖。常住人口约350人,主要聚居于岛的北部;另外通常还有约400人的观光客。岛的南方有偏布森林的山,全岛最高处为海拔875米, 2,871英尺的高尔山(Mt. Gower)也在这里[6]。豪勋爵群岛由28个岛屿、小岛及岩礁组成[6]。除却豪勋爵岛本岛,最为人所注意的岛屿是无人火山岛柏尔的金字塔,距离豪勋爵岛东南方23千米(14英里;12海里)。群岛以北有一系列七座无人居住的岛链,叫作Admiralty Group英语Admiralty Group[7]

豪勋爵岛于1788年2月17日由亨利·利居柏德·柏尔英语Henry Lidgbird BallHenry Lidgbird Ball)所领导的英国皇家海军发现,以对法国作战有功的理查德·豪(Richard Howe,“Howe”姓也有译为“何奥”者)勋爵命名。

岛上一景。远方即为双子峰高尔山(Mt. Gower)与利居柏德山(Mt. Lidgbird)

豪勋爵岛是由海底2000多米深的火山运动与喷发而形成。联合国教育、科学及文化组织UNESCO)于1982年把豪勋爵岛与周围小岛列为具有自然方面重要性的世界自然遗产[8]

参看

参考文献

  1. ^ Regional Statistics – New South Wales (PDF). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2004 [2009-04-19]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2009-02-26).
  2. ^ Port Macquarie. New South Wales Electoral Commission. 2008 [2009-04-19]. (原始内容存档于2009-04-06).
  3. ^ Profile of the Electoral Division Sydney. Australian Electoral Commission. 2011 [2011-08-19]. (原始内容存档于2011-06-29).
  4. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. Lord Howe Island (State Suburb). 2016 Census QuickStats. 27 June 2017. 编辑维基数据链接
  5. ^ Draft Report: Review of the Lord Howe Island Act of 1954 (PDF). State of New South Wales, Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, February 2010. [2011-12-22]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于21 March 2011).
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Lord Howe Island Group. Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. [2011-08-27]. (原始内容存档于2011-09-22).
  7. ^ Hutton 1986,第81页
  8. ^ Lord Howe Island Group. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 2009 [2009-04-20]. (原始内容存档于2017-11-19).

参考书目

  • Allen, Gerald R.; 等. Annotated checklist of the fishes of Lord Howe Island. Records of the Australian Museum. 1976, 30 (15): 365–454. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.30.1976.287.
  • Coleman, Neville. 1001 Nudibranchs – Catalogue of Indo-Pacific Sea Slugs. Springwood. 2001. ISBN 978-0-947325-25-1.
  • Coleman, Neville. Lord Howe Island Marine Park: Sea Shore to Sea Floor: World Heritage Wildlife Guide. Rochedale: Neville Coleman's Underwater Geographic. 2002. ISBN 978-0-947325-27-5.
  • Daniel, M.J.; Williams, G.R. A survey of the distribution, seasonal activity and roost sites of New Zealand bats (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 1984, 7: 9–25 [2019-04-29]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2018-04-13).
  • Etheridge, Robert. Lord Howe Island its zoology, geology, and physical characters. No. 5. The physical and geological structure of Lord Howe Island (PDF). Australian Museum Memoir. 1889, 2 (5): 99–126 [2019-04-29]. ISSN 0067-1967. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1967.2.1889.483. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2018-05-20).
  • Flannery, Tim. The Weather Makers – The History and Future Impact of Climate Change. Allen Lane. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7139-9921-1.
  • Gaffney, Eugene S. A phylogeny and classification of the higher categories of turtles. (article 4). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History英语Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1975, 155 (5): 389–436 [2019-04-29]. (原始内容存档于2015-05-08).
  • Gavrilets, Sergei; Vose, Arron. Case studies and mathematical models of ecological speciation. 2. Palms on an oceanic island. Molecular Ecology. 2007, 16 (14): 2910–2921. PMID 17614906. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2007.03304.x.
  • Green, Peter S. Lord Howe Island. Orchard, Anthony E (编). Flora of Australia. Volume 49, Oceanic Islands 1. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. 1994. ISBN 0-644-29385-3.
  • Harriott, V.J.; Harrison, P.L.; Banks, S.A. The coral communities of Lord Howe Island. Marine and Freshwater Research. 1995, 46 (2): 457–465. doi:10.1071/mf9950457.
  • Hill, E S. Lord Howe Island – Official visit by the Water Police Magistrate and the Director of the Botanic Gardens, Sydney; together with a description of the island. Votes & Proc. Legislative Assembly New South Wales 1870. 1870: 635–654.
  • Hutton, Ian. Lord Howe Island. Australian Capital Territory: Conservation Press. 1986. ISBN 978-0-908198-40-5.
  • Hutton, Ian. Birds of Lord Howe Island – Past and Present. Ian Hutton. 1990. ISBN 978-0-646-02638-1.
  • Hutton, Ian. The Australian Geographic Book of Lord Howe Island. Australian Geographic英语Australian Geographic. 1998. ISBN 978-1-876276-27-0.
  • Hutton, Ian; Parkes, John P. & Sinclair, Anthony R. E., Reassembling island ecosystems: the case of Lord Howe Island (PDF), Animal Conservation, 2007, 10 (22): 22–29 [2011-06-25], doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00077.x, (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2011-11-21)
  • Hutton, Ian. A Guide to World Heritage Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island Museum. 2009.
  • Hutton, Ian. A field guide to the ferns of Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island: Ian Hutton. 2010a. ISBN 978-0-9581286-7-4.
  • Hutton, Ian. A field guide to the birds of Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island: Ian Hutton. 2010b. ISBN 978-0-9581286-2-9.
  • Hutton, Ian. A field guide to the plants of Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island: Ian Hutton. 2010c. ISBN 978-0-9581286-1-2.
  • Hutton, Ian; Harrison, Peter. A field guide to the marine life of Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island: Ian Hutton. 2004. ISBN 978-0-9581286-3-6.
  • Jones, R N. Managing Climate Change Risks. Agrawala, S.; Corfee-Morlot, J. (编). The Benefits of Climate Change Policies: Analytical and Framework Issues, OECD cited in the 联邦科学与工业研究组织's Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions". Paris: 249–298. 2004.[失效链接]
  • McDougall, I; Embleton, B J; Stone, D B. Origin and evolution of Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Geological Association of Australia. 1981, 28: 155–176. doi:10.1080/00167618108729154.
  • Mueller, Ferdinand J.H. von. Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 9. Melbourne: Government Printer. 1875: 76–79.
  • National Library of Australia. Lord Howe Island: 1788–1988. From Antipodean Isolation to World Heritage. A Bicentennial Publication (PDF). National Library of Australia. 1989 [2014-01-24]. ISBN 978-0-7316-3090-5. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2010-12-20).
  • Nichols, Daphne. Lord Howe Island Rising. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Tower Books. 2006. ISBN 978-0-646-45419-1.
  • Pickard, John. Rare or threatened vascular plants of Lord Howe Island. Biological Conservation. 1983a, 27 (2): 125–139. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(83)90084-8.
  • Pickard, John. Vegetation of Lord Howe Island. Cunninghamia. 1983b, 17: 133–266.
  • Pickard, John. Exotic plants of Lord Howe Island: distribution in space and time, 1853–1981. Journal of Biogeography. 1984, 11 (3): 181–208. JSTOR 2844639. doi:10.2307/2844639.
  • Rabone, Harold R. Lord Howe Island: Its discovery and early associations 1788 to 1888. Sydney: Australis. 1972.
  • Recher, Harry F; Clark, Stephen S. Environmental survey of Lord Howe Island : a report to the Lord Howe Island Board / edited by Harry F. Recher and Stephen S. Clark Lord Howe Island Board (N.S.W.). Australian Museum: Dept. of Environmental Studies. 1974.Recher, H. F.; Clark, S. S. A biological survey of Lord Howe Island with recommendations for the conservation of the island's wildlife. Biological Conservation. 1974, 6 (4): 263. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(74)90005-6.
  • Starbuck, Alexander. History of the American Whaling Fishery from its Earliest Inception to the Year 1876. Waltham, Massachusetts: author. 1878.
  • Veron, John E; Done, T J. Corals and coral communities of Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 1979, 30 (2): 203–236. doi:10.1071/mf9790203.
  • Wallis, G.P.; Trewick, Steve A. New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small continent. Molecular Ecology. 2009, 18 (17): 3548–80. PMID 19674312. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04294.x.
  • Wilson, J. Bowie (John Bowie). Report on the present state and future prospects of Lord Howe Island. T. Richards, Govt. Printer. 1882 [27 February 2017]. (原始内容存档于2019-08-18).

新闻来源

CC-BY-icon-80x15.png This Wikipedia article contains material from Lord Howe Island Group, entry number 00970 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 2 June 2018.

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外部链接



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