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西班牙裔

西班牙裔(Hispanic)或西班牙语裔美洲地区的一个特定语言族群,他们拥有来自于拉丁美洲或者伊比利亚半岛的血统。[1][2][3]广义来说,西班牙裔包含所有在美洲居住并且自定义为西班牙裔或者拉丁裔的一类人。[4][5][6][7][8][9]

西班牙裔人的祖先分布广泛,族群多样性非常强。因此西班牙裔并不是一个种族,而更像一类族群,以语言和文化维系。

西班牙裔和拉丁裔和西班牙人的区别

西班牙裔(Hispanic)和拉丁裔(Latino)经常会被人们混用。事实上,西班牙裔的定义相比而言较为狭义,指的是说西班牙语的人或者祖籍为西班牙的人;而拉丁裔的则较为广义,指的是拥有拉丁美洲祖先的人们(因此还包括巴西人,尽管大部分巴西人说葡萄牙语)。[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

除了这两者外,还有更狭义的西班牙人(Españoles,英语Spaniards),仅指代和现代西班牙有关的人。

因此,“西班牙裔=西班牙人+说西班牙语拉丁美洲人-葡萄牙人-巴西人”,而“拉丁裔=祖籍为拉丁美洲的人”。葡萄牙人和其他说葡萄牙语且非拉丁美洲人则既不是西班牙裔也不是拉丁裔,但包含葡语为主的巴西人,而以英语主的加勒比海国家人民则有时和讲荷语的苏里南人和以英文为主的圭亚那人和伯利兹人被排除在外,而其中原因,英语和荷语并非拉丁语,而苏国与盖国更以印度族裔为多数,其中圭亚那的亚裔族群众多(华人和印度裔众多),而拉丁民族中的欧洲白人后裔、印地安人后裔和印欧混血人种(梅斯蒂索人)皆属少数,只有非裔黑人和欧非混血人占多数,所以有时也会被排除在外,而以法语为主的海地人(虽然主要种族是非裔黑人)与法属圭亚那人民广义也算拉丁裔,因为法语也是拉丁语所延伸出的拉丁语族中的一种语言,但拉丁裔更常被用于讲西班语为主的人身上。

族群分布

西班牙裔或者拉丁裔占据了美国16.9%的人口,即5300万人。[21]由此而成为继墨西哥,超过阿根廷哥伦比亚西班牙的第二大西班牙社群。[22]

参考资料

  1. ^ Luis Fraga; John A. Garcia. Latino Lives in America: Making It Home. Temple University Press. 2010: 145 [2014-03-14]. ISBN 978-1-4399-0050-5. (原始内容存档于2021-02-27).
  2. ^ Nancy L. Fisher. Cultural and Ethnic Diversity: A Guide for Genetics Professionals. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1996: 19 [2014-03-14]. ISBN 978-0-8018-5346-3. (原始内容存档于2021-02-24).
  3. ^ Robert H. Holden; Rina Villars. Contemporary Latin America: 1970 to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. 2012: 18 [2014-03-14]. ISBN 978-1-118-27487-3. (原始内容存档于2021-03-18).
  4. ^ 49 CFR Part 26. [2012-10-22]. (原始内容存档于2012-11-23). 'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race;
  5. ^ US Small Business Administration 8(a) Program Standard Operating Procedure (PDF). [2012-10-22]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2006-09-25). SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or the Iberian Peninsula, including Spain and Portugal.
  6. ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. [2011-03-28]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2011-04-29). "Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin regardless of race.
  7. ^ American FactFinder Help: Hispanic or Latino origin. United States Census Bureau. [2008-10-05]. (原始内容存档于2001-03-05). For Census 2000, American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any "race".
    1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish speaking countries of Central or South America, the Caribbean, or those identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, etc. Origin can be viewed as ancestry, nationality, or country of birth of the person or person's parents or ancestors prior to their arrival in the United States.
  8. ^ Office of Management and Budget. Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997. [2012-06-01]. (原始内容存档于2004-02-08).
  9. ^ B03001. Hispanic or Latino origin by specific origin. 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. [2010-10-17]. (原始内容存档于2020-02-12).
  10. ^ Carlos Dejud. The Relationship Among Ethnic Identity, Psychological Well-being, Academic Achievement, and Intergroup Competence of School-age Hispanic/Latino Youth. ProQuest. 2007: 21 [2014-03-14]. ISBN 978-0-549-29853-3. (原始内容存档于2016-04-26).
  11. ^ Timothy Ready. Latino Immigrant Youth: Passages from Adolescence to Adulthood. Taylor & Francis. 1991: 14 [2014-03-14]. ISBN 978-0-8153-0057-1. (原始内容存档于2021-04-20).
  12. ^ Latino: People with roots in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking Americas. This broader term, mostly used in the United States, is sometimes used as a replacement for Hispanic.. [2014-03-14]. (原始内容存档于2014-10-18).
  13. ^ Defining "Hispanic" as meaning those with Spanish speaking roots in the Americas and "Latino" as meaning those with both Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking roots in Latin America.. [2014-03-14]. (原始内容存档于2008-06-21).
  14. ^ "'Latino' . . . 'is more inclusive and descriptive'" than Hispanic. "'Latino' is short for 'latinoamericano,' which of course means Latin American in Spanish. Like its English counterpart, the term 'latinoamericano' strictly refers to the people who come from the territory in the Americas colonized by Latin nations, such as Portugal, Spain, and France, whose languages are derived from Latin. People from Brazil, Mexico, and even Haiti are thus all 'latinoamericanos.' Individuals who are decendants of the former British or Dutch colonies are excluded. . . . Finally, 'hispanoamericanos' are persons from the former colonies of Spain in the 'New World.' The expression 'Hispanic' probably derives from 'hispanoamericanos.'" Angel R. Oquendo, Re-Imagining the Latino/a Race, 12 Harvard BlackLetter L.J. 93, 96 -97 (1995)
  15. ^ "[T]he term 'Latino' . . . is more inclusive and descriptive than the term 'Hispanic.'" Deborah A. Ramirez, Excluded Voices: The Disenfranchisement of Ethnic Groups From Jury Service, 1993 Wis. L. Rev. 761, 806 (1993).
  16. ^ Anderson, Kevin. The complexity of race in New Mexico. The Guardian (London). 2008-10-18 [2014-03-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-06-04).
  17. ^ 失效链接]]] (PDF). [2014-03-14]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2013-10-24). 网址-维基内链冲突 (帮助)
  18. ^ AP Stylebook Twitter. [2012-04-06]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-11).
  19. ^ Herald Style Guide. [2012-04-06]. (原始内容存档于2017-05-24).
  20. ^ Newsroom 101: Recent Changes to AP Style. Newsroom 101. [2012-04-06]. (原始内容存档于2012-04-18).
  21. ^ Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports. 2012-05-17 [2014-05-04]. (原始内容存档于2019-05-18) (英语).
  22. ^ Agence France-Presse. U.S. now has most Spanish speakers outside Mexico. 2013-06-15 [2014-05-04]. (原始内容存档于2013-12-03) (英语).

参考文献

  • De la Garza, Rodolfo O.; Desipio, Louis. Ethnic Ironies: Latino Politics in the 1992 Elections. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 1996 [2018-08-24]. (原始内容存档于2019-08-22).
  • Maura, Juan Francisco. Caballeros y rufianes andantes en la costa atlántica de los Estados Unidos: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón y Alvar Núñez Cabeza. Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos. 2011, 35 (2): 305–328.
  • Maura, Juan Francisco. Nuevas aportaciones al estudio de la toponimia ibérica en la América Septentrional en el siglo XVI. Bulletin of Spanish Studies. 2009, 86 (5): 577–603. doi:10.1080/14753820902969345.
  • Maura, Juan Francisco. Sobre el origen hispánico del nombre ‘Canadá’ (PDF). Lemir: Revista de literatura medieval y del Renacimiento. 2016, (20): 17–52 [2018-08-24]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-03-11).
  • Montalban-Anderssen, Romero Anton. What is a Hispanic? Legal Definition vs. Racist Definition. andrew.cmu.edu. 1996 [2018-08-24]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-11).
  • Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W. Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region. Journal of Geography. May 2007, 106 (3): 113–122. doi:10.1080/00221340701599113.

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