万维百科

被认定是伪科学的主题列表本文重定向自 被認定是偽科學的主題列表

(重定向自定性為偽科學的主題列表)

被认定是伪科学的主题列表(List of topics characterized as pseudoscience)表列出在自身发展过程中曾被学者或研究者认定为伪科学的主题。有关这类主题的具体讨论都在其对应的维基百科页面做出,本列表仅提供概述。学者们将这些东西认定为伪科学,有时是为了向大众暴露可疑、危险的主张,有时是为了定义科学之本质,有时则只是为了讽刺粗制滥造的低级科学论证。

科学界科学怀疑论机构是批评伪科学的主力军。对于伪科学主题的批评一般基于其逻辑方法修辞特点展开。[1] 本表列出的主题中,有些在今天仍是科学研究的对象,有些则是过去科学的一部分,在被证伪后又因伪科学借尸还魂;还有些主题自始至终都无科学性质,但或多或少地剽窃了某些科学领域或科学实践的内容。以下列出的主题的许多拥护者、从业者都会争辩其所相信的学说是否为伪科学,故本列表每节都会总结定性的原因。

物理科学

量子力学

  • 量子神秘主义:受量子力学启发,对宗教、超自然和神秘力量的解释。但这些解释并不能证实或证伪。

天文学与空间科学

  • 2012年预言:在2012年会发生灾变和世界末日事件的一种信念,该猜想是从长纪历衍生的。人们把其与公历比对,计算出该年为世界重生的时刻,末日的机制预测是以“太阳风暴”、“银河对齐”、“极移”、“小行星、彗星或行星大规模碰撞(如尼比鲁)”等方式发生[2][3][4]
  • 古代外星人:由艾利希·冯·丹尼肯于1968年提出[5],指在古时候,外星人令人类文明兴起,或提供了各古代社会的一些技术性援助[6][7]
  • 占星术:是指基于天体的运动和相对位置来占卜人事,以及地表事件的几个主要体系[11][12][13][14]
  • 多贡人与天狼B:一系列的声称,认为多贡部落在古时候知道天狼星的白矮星伴星,尽管它是肉眼看不见的[10]
  • 火星上的脸:是火星上的岩层区域,其遭人断定为该星球上有生命存在的证据[15]。高分辨率的图像都显示出它并不那么像脸。但此区域在理查德·霍格兰英语Richard C. Hoagland汤姆·范·法兰德斯英语Tom Van Flandern的作品占有显著地位。
  • 现代地平说:认为地球是平的、圆盘状的行星,并认为因加速向上升而使人们产生称为引力的错觉。诸如地平说学会般的地平说倡导者,不接受证明地球是圆的有力证据,如从太空拍出来的照片。
  • 月球效应英语Lunar effect:满月影响人类行为的信念[16]
  • 阿波罗登月计划阴谋论:声称大众遭阿波罗计划所哄骗。虽然当中许多指责都遭广泛认为只是阴谋论,但有的人试图用错误的科学理解去证明登月不可能发生,因此它们有资格列在伪科学之上[17][18]
  • 尼比鲁碰撞:始于南希·利德(Nancy Lieder)的一种预测,神话中的行星尼比鲁将与地球相撞。后经她很多次调整预测至于2012年发生[19][20][21][22]
  • 世界的碰撞英语Worlds in Collision伊曼纽尔·维里科夫斯基英语Immanuel Velikovsky这位作家在他所编写的著作《世界的碰撞》中提出,认为古文字和地理证据都能证明人类曾见证了发生在太阳系其他行星的浩劫[17]
  • 飞行员夏斯特里英语Vaimānika Shāstra:一个在吠陀时期属印度民族主义英语Hindu nationalism的主张:声称飞机在古印度被发明。印度科学理工学院的研究人员发现,经典所描述的飞行器在空气动力学上并不可行。研究者们曾指出,经典对飞行原则的讨论在很大程度上都是敷衍了事和不正确的,在某些情况下更违反牛顿运动定律[23][24]
  • 幽浮学:对不明飞行物体的研究,这些研究有时会包含“不明飞行物体是外星访客存在的证据”的信仰。[25][26][27][17][12][28]
  • 外星生物创造论:认为地球和生命是由外星人所创造的。[25][26][27][8]

地球科学

  • 几何图形巨石英语Pseudoscientific metrology:支持者假设道一个存在于地球上的几何图形可追溯至少公元前3500年前,以及认为即使到了现在,这样的系统仍受到共济会的应用。据亚历山大汤姆般的支持者认为,英国和布列塔尼巨石文明推动了诸如几何、数学、地球大小般的知识。另一名支持者巴特勒则认为托姆的巨石码曾把地球圆周极坐标分为366度[29][30]
  • 百慕大三角:百慕大、波多黎各和佛罗里达州(在其最流行的版本)之间的大西洋区域,在此领域频繁的船舶和飞机的灾害和失踪事件遭一些人认为是超自然现象所导致的,与诸如遇上超自然事件、与外星人交流般的相关故事亦在民间广泛流传[6]
  • 否定气候变化:与否定全球变暖有关的政治争议已受到科学界认定为伪科学[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]
  • 地球空洞说:地球是完全空心的/地壳之下是中空的主张,某些民间传说和阴谋论者仍持有这样的想法,并认为地下生命是存在的。
  • 李森科主义-特罗菲姆·邓尼索维奇·李森科提出来的生物遗传原理,其是基于获得性遗传[39]。李森科主义是否定了孟德尔的生物遗传理论,后来此一主义李森科后命名为米丘林主义。李森科的学说在20世纪40年代末至50年代初在苏联的地位尤其突出。基因斯大林集体化运动所引起的饥荒之后被广泛宣称为“资产阶级的科学”。在李森科承诺农作物产量未能兑现后,苏联悄然放弃了李森科的农业实践,改为现代农业的标准做法。到了50年代中期,他的影响力大大下降。现今李森科的农业实验和研究在很大程度上都会视为欺诈[40][41]
  • 地平说:一种理论认为地球是平的,而非球状。一些边缘团体仍然支持这个理论[42]

能量

  • 水变油事件:1983年于中国发生的伪科学事件。一位发明家声称,他只需通过加入自己的“可燃炔”制剂数滴,就能把水变成可用燃料。中国政府和***对于像这样的伪科学声称感到震惊,并发表联合公告,谴责道对大众的科学教育有所衰落[43]
  • 分数氢英语Brilliant Light Power:氢原子的假设状态,据诸如兰德尔·米尔斯(Randell Mills)般的支持者所言,因为其能量较基态时的低,因此是自由能的一个来源[44][45][46]
  • 永动机:违反热力学定律的机器。虽自18世纪后期永动机已被确认为伪科学,但至今人们仍提议尝试做出这样的机器和申请专利[13][17][27]
  • 奥刚英语Orgone:伪科学的一个理念,支持者形容它是一种深奥的能量,或是一种宇宙假想生命的力量,最初由威廉·赖希于20世纪30年代提出[50][51][52]

建筑学

  • 风水:中国的建筑学体系,往往遭科学界视为具迷信元素的伪科学[53][54][55]
  • 毘罗经典英语Vastu shastra:古印度的建筑学体系,其中规定了一系列与建房氛围有关的规则。诸如贾扬特·纳里卡英语Jayant Narlikar般的科学家写到其与环境没有“逻辑联系”,并指出有时候业主会把已经建成的建筑重建,以适应体系中的规定[56][57]另一个例子则是,一位部长曾下令拆迁在东面的贫民窟,使得他的办公室门口能朝东,按毘罗的从业者所言,把入口改为大门朝东会解决他的政治问题[58][59]

物理学

  • 爱因斯坦 - 嘉当 - 埃文斯理论英语Einstein–Cartan–Evans theory:由化学家迈伦·埃文斯、威尔士提出的物理学统一理论[60]
  • 电磁重力学英语Electrogravitics:根据托马斯·汤森·布朗在20世纪20年代的研究的一种假说,认为应用大容量的电荷可以产生重力影响[61]

生命科学

农业科学

  • 生物动力农业有机农业的一种方式,把农场的生物个体统一和单一化,生物动力使用已被定为占星用途的日历。生物动力学家所使用的物质和堆肥已被人形容为非常规和顺势。例如,驱逐田鼠的方法是当金星在天蝎座上时,准备由田鼠皮肤制成的骨灰[62][63][64][65]

应用科学

健康与医学

属伪科学的医疗行为通常被称为庸医(英语:quack)。

  • 替代医学,已遭科学界形容为伪科学的一个分类,国家科学基金会已进行了关于“科幻和伪科学”的“公众态度和公众理解”的调查,包括研究替代医学的受欢迎程度。它认为“相信替代医学”是一项令人关注的问题,其把替代医学定义为“所有治疗方法皆没有通过现代科学方法证明”。其引述怀疑论者调查委员会英语Committee for Skeptical Inquiry替代医学列表后,认为当中许多属伪科学,并提及到科学工作者、组织和科学决策团体成员所关注的问题,它评论说“尽管如此,替代医学的受欢迎程度似乎在增加[66]……美国医学院校中至少有60%课堂时间投入在替代疗法的教学中,这在科学界引起一定争议[66]。”有报告指,大学正在“越来越倾向于顺势疗法和补充医学,其为科学界所反对的‘伪科学’学位[67] 。”学者形容替代医学的学位为“伪科学学位[66][67][68]”、“反科学”以及“有害的”[69]
  • 人体冷冻技术,以超低温保存在临床上已死亡的人体,并希望未来科技可以解冻及复生。目前并没有成功个案把已冷冻的人类大脑、人体或哺乳类动物解冻后可复生,也没有足够科学证据证明有复生的可能。 [70][71]
  • 人智医学英语Anthroposophic medicine:补充和替代医学的一种[72],由鲁道夫·斯坦纳伊达·韦格曼英语Ita Wegman根据人智学的精神理念在20世纪20年代创立,强调以整全观对待健康,却不强调随机对照试验[73][74],人智医学会配制与症状的“关键动力力量”(key dynamic forces)匹配的药物[75],并且会准备各种稀释液调配,最后求诊者以外用、口服以及非口服的方式服用药物的方式,来达至整体上顺势的效果[76] 。人智医学的从业者一般不建议/建议推迟疫苗接种,以及使用抗生素和退热药[77][78][79]。诸如罗伯特·卡罗尔英语Robert Todd Carroll般的怀疑论者,把人智医学的原则比喻为交感巫术,即治疗性植物可通过它们的形态以及生理性的扭曲而被识别[80]卡罗尔和其他人表示该体系不是基于科学[80][81][82]埃得·扎德英语Edzard Ernst认为,人智医学的功效还没有得到独立于它的哲学理念的全面科学分析证明,且没有基于证据的结论可以得出该体系的整体效用[83]
  • 应用肌肉动力学英语Applied kinesiology:一种诊断方法,当中从业者会利用人手去为肌肉强度作测试,以此为根据去作出医疗诊断和处方治疗,支持者相信从业者可以通过外部的物理性质确定健康问题或缺乏哪种营养,如肌肉反应、姿势,或分析动作。各种疗法的基础是测试肌肉的无力度或动作的平滑性、并基于以下猜想——肌肉和器官之间有关的。例如从业者会给病人一手握住载有内含物的罐子,然后测试另一只手的肌肉力量;如果有很小的抵抗力,从业者便可宣称患者对该物质过敏[84]或疾病[85]科学并不支持某些国际学院要求应用肌肉动力学至标准诊断技术的主张[86]脊骨神经医学的从业者往往会运用应用肌肉动力学,但自然疗法从业者、医生、牙医、营养师、物理治疗师按摩治疗师、护士也可能运用应用肌肉动力学[85][87]。应用肌肉动力学不应与运动机能学英语Kinesiology相混淆,运动机能学是人体运动的科学研究。
  • 商布德利帕德敏感症消除技术英语Nambudripad's Allergy Elimination Techniques:从业者声称其是过敏和相关病症的一种替代诊治。现有的综述得出结论:该技术所使用的诊断技术是无效的[88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95],一些医学协会建议不要以这种方式运用应用肌肉动力学[94][96][97][98][99][100]。一些探讨商布德利帕德敏感症消除技术的文献综述直接表明:缺乏任何证据支持它的有效性,且其主张是毫无根据的[95][101]。商布德利帕德敏感症消除技术的理论基础已被批评为缺乏科学依据[99][102]澳亚临床免疫与过敏协会英语Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy建议不要使用商布德利帕德敏感症消除技术[99]
  • 贝茨方法英语Bates method:由眼科医生威廉·贝茨开发的一套纠正方法,旨在“自然地”提高视力,它据称可消除眼外肌紧绷,以省去眼镜的需求[103]。1929年,联邦贸易委员会列举了贝茨所编写的书——《摘掉眼镜完美视力》的误导性宣传[104],但相关投诉后来被驳回[105]。虽然有些人声称遵循了他的指导以后,视力的确有所改善,但贝茨关于视觉和调节的想法已遭到主流眼科和视光学界的反对[106][107][108][109][110]
  • 生理节律:假设人的生理和行为会受到分别23、28、33天为一循环的体力、情绪和智力周期所控制。该体系假定,当智力周期曲线越过基线位或附近时(个体出生时),该人判断事物出错的机会会增加。并没有人发现任何与行动有关的生物物理机制,生物节律的预测能力并不比碰运气佳[6][111][112][113]。对于像昼夜节律般的生物学研究,请参见时间生物学
  • 细胞记忆:一种假设认为身体本身便能够储存记忆,而不是只有大脑。支持者认为它是失亿后再回复记忆的根本原因[114]。这些回忆的特征通常是以身体一个或多个部分幻肢痛来表达——支持者认为这是身体回忆过去的创伤所致,细胞记忆的想法经常是与记忆的压抑联系起来,当中细胞会记忆乱伦或***待的经历,并通过身体感知回忆[114][115]
  • 健脑操英语Brain Gym:一项商业培训计划,声称只要实践者所进行的动作合乎要求,任何学习的困难都可以透过大脑中的新回路建立来克服。他们声称,重复26套健脑操动作能“激活大脑,优化其储存和提取信息的能力[116]。”,并声称健脑操是为了达至“身与心的融汇”而设,并能提高“集中力、记忆力、阅读能力、写作能力、组织能力、听力、身体协调性等能力”[117]。科学界已驳斥了其理论基础,并把它形容为伪科学[118][119][120][121]。有关健脑操的科学研究在经过同行评审后,发现一般情况下学业技能并无显著改善。它所声称的结果并没有考虑其他变量,比如安慰剂效应、休息和运动的好处。其创始人保罗·丹尼森也承认,许多健脑操的声称并不是基于优良的科学(good science),而是基于他的“直觉”[122]
  • 脊骨神经医学:一种替代医学实践,侧重于寻找脊髓的半脱位英语Vertebral subluxation(一套属于脊骨神经医学的症状和体征),并以调整脊髓的方式治疗。许多现代脊骨神经医学从业者仅仅针对机械性功能障碍,并提供健康和生活方式辅导[123][124]。然而,许多从业者根据丹尼尔·大卫·帕尔马英语Daniel David Palmer巴特利特·约书亚·帕尔默英语B. J. Palmer的活力论作出实践,坚持认为所有或许多的器质性疾病都是脊髓功能障碍的结果,如脊椎半脱位或先天的知能英语Innate intelligence(一种猜想能量)的流动受到损害[125][126] 。这些观点并不是基于科学,以及目前仍没有强而有力的研究能化解脊骨神经医学和主流医学之间的历史矛盾[127][128][129][130]。最近的系统综述显示脊骨神经医学可能适度有益于非特异性下背痛的管理[131][132][133]。脊骨神经医学的有效性尚未根据循证医学的任何原则证实[134]。报告中亦提及“符合轻微的定义”的副作用,如脊柱推拿后可能出现的神经系统受损,尤其是上脊柱推拿,其发生频率为33——61%之间,脊骨神经医学的大多数副作用都是轻微的,如轻度酸痛、头晕,头昏、浅头晕、头痛、麻木感或上肢酸麻;很少观察到但亦有发生的严重并发症则包括蛛网膜下腔出血椎动脉夹层英语Vertebral artery dissection或是脊髓病变[135][136][137][138][139]
    • 先天的知能英语Innate intelligence:一种假想能量,一些脊骨神经医学从业者认为它的责任是流动以维持患者的健康。花大部分时间研究脊骨神经医学的临床心理学家约瑟夫·基廷英语Joseph C. Keating Jr.表示:“一直以来,我们的‘一种原因,一种治疗’这种说辞,我们应该预料到被更广泛的健康科学界嘲笑。脊骨神经医学不能两者兼得。我们的理论不能同时教条式地构建生机论及科学化,帕尔默的知能的目的性、自觉性和刚性应予驳回[140]。”
    • 椎骨半脱位英语Vertebral subluxation:脊骨神经医学的用语描述先天的知能所流动的部位病变或推测由脊椎病变引起的神经肌肉骨胳病变和内脏功能失调,科学共识并不支持脊骨神经医学的椎骨半脱位存在[141]
  • 结肠清洗疗法英语Colon cleansing:几种替代医学,旨在从结肠和肠道除去粪便和不明毒素。从业者相信,腐烂粪便积聚于大肠壁,并且它们窝藏寄生虫或致病肠道菌群,造成非特异性症状和健康欠佳。这种“自体中毒”的假设是基于古埃及人和希腊人的医疗信念,而在20世纪初名声扫地[142][143]
  • 颅骶疗法英语Craniosacral therapy:治疗师把他们的手放在病人的头骨上,使得他们能够调节脑脊液的节奏[144]。颅骶疗法的治疗师声称颅骶疗法可以治疗精神紧张、颈部和背部疼痛、偏头痛颞下颌关节功能紊乱英语Temporomandibular joint dysfunction以及慢性疼痛(如纤维肌痛)[145][146][147]。在1999年进行的系统回顾“找不到有效的科学证据表明,颅骶疗法提供予患者任何好处。”并指出,“现有的低等证据是从实验设计差的健康结果研究中衍生”和“已有报告指出患者在疗法后损伤头部的事件[148]。”颅骶疗法已被很多不同的研究人员定性为伪科学或在研究人员中的名声较差[149][150][151][152][153][154]
  • 水晶疗法英语Crystal healing:相信水晶有治疗作用。一度在前科学(pre-scientific)和土著人之间流行,它的知名度因20世纪70年代的新纪元运动复兴[155][156]
  • 排毒英语Detoxification (alternative medicine):排毒是替代医学范围内的一种实践,声称可以去除身体内的“毒素”——在身体积累的有害物质,据称在短期或长期内对个人健康有不良影响。许多主流媒体网站提供关于这种实践的文章,但是缺乏科学依据证明存在毒素及其危害或去除技术的功效。
  • 耳烛:一种替代医学实践,声称使用空心蜡烛将一端插入外耳道,另一端点燃,可以改善整体健康和幸福感。医学研究表明,这种实践是无效的,并有可能令人受伤,虽然可能性较低。一项调查访问了122名耳鼻喉科医师,发现在其职业生涯中,共有21例病例耳朵因此而受伤[157]。此过程不会帮助清除耳垢或毒性物质[158]
  • 接地气疗法英语Earthing therapy:一种疗法,声称通过直接与地面或与连接到电气接地的装置物理接触可以缓解疼痛、令睡眠质素更佳并帮助缓解疾病的发炎症状[159]。据称,地球拥有过剩的电子,但由于绝缘鞋和地面覆盖物的关系令人们缺少,与大地接触能把其过量的电子提供予身体,然后充当抗氧化剂[160]
  • 电磁波过敏症:“患者”报告对暴露水平低于规定安全标准的电场和磁场或不同频率的电磁辐射敏感。症状并不一致,但可以包括头痛、疲劳、睡眠困难和类似的非特异性症状[161]。研究发现,患者的不适与隐藏的辐射来源无关[162][163]和“无科学依据证明暴露于电磁场及电磁波过敏症之间目前存在的任何联系[164]。”
  • 信仰疗法:通过诸如祈祷手礼英语Laying on of hands等行为治愈疾病。据观察所得信仰疗法没有带来超过安慰剂预期的肉体上的得益[6][165][166]
  • 健康手链及各种疗法饰品——声称改善健康、愈合或提高穿用者的“”,如离子手链英语Ionized jewelry全息手链英语Hologram bracelet以及磁性饰品。制造商所声称的任何效果没有被独立来源证实[167][168]
  • 顺势疗法:相信某物质能在健康的人身上,引起病人患某病时的病症,此物质就能治疗该病症。这些准备工作通常是就以上一点稀释制剂,任何治疗方法可能也是差不多[169]。顺势疗法的研究在很大程度上是负面的或不确定的[170][171][172][173] 。顺势疗法的原则没有已证实的科学依据[174][175][176][177][178][179][180]
  • 虹膜学英语Iridology:医疗诊断手段,其支持者相信能够通过仔细检查虹膜的标记和图案来识别和诊断健康问题。从业人员划分虹膜为80-90个区域,其中每一个分别连系到特定的身体区域或器官。此连系尚未经过科学验证,疾病检测既不是讲究也不是具体的[181][182][183]。由于虹膜纹理是一个表型特征,怀孕期间的在母体内发展并且出生后保持不变(这使得虹膜生物识别有用处),虹膜学几乎是不可能成功的。
  • 肠漏综合症英语Leaky gut syndrome:一个在替代医学中拟议的状态,有害物质从肠道壁外面进入的通道,被提出作为许多状态的原因,包括多发性硬化症和自闭症。肠漏综合症是一项已被称为伪科学的宣称[184]。据英国国家健康服务英语National Health Service (England)所指出,这个理论是模糊且未经证实的[185]。一些怀疑论者和科学家说,治疗肠漏综合症的市场是被误导或故意欺诈的一个实例[185]
  • 闪电般的过程英语The Lightning Process:自称是从整骨疗法衍生的系统——神经语言规划及生活辅导[186]。支持者声称,该过程可以对一系列的疾病和病症产生积极影响,包括肌痛性脑炎,但是疗效没有科学证据证明[187]。闪电般的过程的设计者菲尔·帕克(Phill Parker)表明,慢性疲劳症候群是中枢神经系统自主神经系统失调的结果,闪电般的过程旨在解决这些神经系统的失调,帮助打破“肾上腺素循环”,让系统的应激反应维持在一个高的水平[187]
  • 磁疗:使用磁场来正面地影响健康的实践。虽然磁铁和磁场有合法的医疗用途,但在磁疗使用的磁场强度太低,不足以实现任何生理变化,使用的方法亦没有科学有效性[6][188][189]
  • 阿育吠陀:传统阿育吠陀是扎根于古印度5000年历史的另类医疗实践,基于心灵——身体的一套信念[190][191]。人的意识不平衡或压力被认为是疾病的原因[190]。患者按着体质类型划分(三种doshas(能量元素)被认为是控制身心和谐,以其衡量个人的体质)和治疗的目的是恢复心灵——身体系统的平衡[190][191] 。长期以来,它一直是印度医疗保健的主要传统体系[191]。它已在印度的学院和学校被制度化,但无证从业者依然普遍[192]。像其他传统知识一样,很多有关阿育吠陀的知识已失传;在西方,目前与阿育吠陀有关的实践是玛赫西·马赫什·瑜珈部分基于阿育吠陀的启发[193] ,把其与传统的超觉静坐英语Transcendental Meditation混合。在美国,阿育吠陀最引人注目的倡导者是狄巴克·乔布拉英语Deepak Chopra,他声称阿育吠陀是基于量子神秘主义[193]
  • 自然疗法:或称自然医学,基于相信活力论的一种替代医学,其假定一种被称为生命能量或生命力的特殊能量的存在,其会引导身体的活动如新陈代谢、繁殖、生长和适应[194]。自然疗法已被定性为伪科学[195][196]。它尤其因没被证明、被证伪或危险的治疗方法而被人批评[197][198][199][200]。自然的方法以及不是人造或合成的化学品不一定更安全或更有效;任何有效果的治疗也可能有有害的副作用[143][196][201][202]
  • 骨科手法医学英语Osteopathic manipulative medicine整骨手法医学整骨医学的核心技术,基于安德鲁·泰勒·史迪尔构想的理念,认为身体拥有的自我调节机制可能可以通过控制或移动骨骼、肌腱和肌肉得到充分利用。它被提议治疗许多人类疾病,包括帕金森氏病、胰腺炎和肺炎,但只发现对下背痛有效[203][204][205]。长期以来,人们一直认为它是基于“伪科学教条”[206]。美国计算生物学家和计算机科学家史蒂芬·扎尔茨贝格英语Steven Salzberg提到整骨医学院校教授的整骨手法医学为“伪科学中的实践训练”[207]
  • 鲁尔夫治疗法英语Rolfing:由爱达·鲁尔夫英语Ida Rolf(1896–1979) 所创,从业者声称能够摆脱人体肌肉层的创伤记忆[208],没有任何证据表明鲁尔夫治疗法对任何疾病有效[209]
  • 触摸治疗英语Therapeutic touch活力论的一种,医师或护士[26][210]将他或她的手放在患者上和围绕以“重新调整”或“平衡”假想的能量场[27]。Cochrane评价的结论是“没有证据表明[触摸治疗]促进急性伤口愈合[211]。”并没有人发现能量场的生物物理基础[212][213]
  • 锡箔帽:锡箔帽是从一片或多片铝箔制成的帽子或普通的内含箔头饰,相信戴上它可以保护大脑,免受电磁场、精神控制和读心术的威胁。目前没有发现无线电频与防止随后健康状况不佳的锡箔帽间有任何关系。
    • 脏腑:功能性器官,其储存阴阳和蓄存精气[214]。这些器官不是基于解剖学。
  • 尿疗法:饮用自己的未稀释尿液或顺势疗法的尿液药剂,据称能治疗多种疾病,其是基于伪科学[215]
  • 自闭症和疫苗之间的联系:其中疫苗被指责引起自闭症谱系障碍、引发它们或加重他们,其已被定性为伪科学[216]。许多流行病学的研究发现缺乏证据表明MMR疫苗或含硫柳汞疫苗和自闭症的对应关系[217]。因此,医学研究所已经得出结论,这些品种的疫苗和自闭症之间没有因果关系[218]
  • 活力论:该学说认为生命的活动不受物理和化学定律所规限,某种程度上是生命自行决定,《伪科学百科全书》指出“今天,活力论是许多伪科学卫生系统的基础,其声称疾病是由人体的生命力紊乱或失衡造成。”“活力论者宣称自己是科学的,但实际上他们拒绝科学方法,其原因和作用基本上是假设的。他们经常认为主观感受会更加有力于客观物理现实[219]。”

金融

阴谋论

  • 脑控:一种认为世界上已有政府或科研机构,发明了以电脑或电磁幅射,远程遥控受害者大脑思维意识和情绪的阴谋论,目前没有证据证明让技术出现的可能性,从目前的电脑科学及脑科学技术来看是绝无可能。[229][230][231][232]

社会科学

心理学

  • 依附疗法英语Attachment therapy:一套有可能致命的临床介入[233],并是一套较激进的育儿技巧的名称,亦即实践者会冷血地对儿童实行“剥夺和身心虐待,以寻求自己想要的效果[234]。”最常见的施行时间是大人因宣泄愤怒和恶化的情绪而剥夺孩子。当中最常见的是“重生”,亦即把孩子被紧紧包裹在毯子内,然后模拟从产道出生:鼓励孩子努力拼搏、推动和挤压他/她自己去模拟宫缩[6]。尽管实践的名字不是基于传统依附理论,它的原则亦在主流发展心理学中毫无根据可言[235]。在2006年,它是美国虐待儿童问题专业协会的关键主题[236]。并非所有依附疗法都是强制性的,且自从康丹丝·纽梅克英语Candace Newmaker的案例后,该领域的领导人一直朝着减少胁迫行为的方向前进[236]
  • ***:一种思想灌输的理论过程,其会导致被***者的自主权减少、失去独立思考能力、关系和信念被破坏。在此情景下,***是指基本信仰和价值观被非自愿地再教育。***一词已被应用到战术、心理或其他方面,被视为可以颠覆并控制一个人的思想、行为、情感或决策。1983年,美国心理协会(APA)要求玛格丽特·辛格英语Margaret Singer主持了一个特别小组,其叫APA说服和控制中的欺骗和间接引入技术专责小组英语APA Task Force on Deceptive and Indirect Methods of Persuasion and Control,研究***或者“强制性说服”是否的确在“邪教”的招聘中发挥作用,美国心理协会发现,***的理论并没有经验证明,并驳回专责小组的报告,因为报告“缺乏必要的科学严谨性,即使是批评态度,美国心理协会的出版许可必须有科学严谨性[237][238]。”否决备忘录连带着从外部评审员本杰明·贝特·郝拉米英语Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi和杰弗里·D·费舍尔(Jeffery D. Fisher)寄来的两封信件,这些信件批评“***”为不可识别的理论概念,以及批评辛格的推理存在缺陷,“近乎荒谬。”[239]
  • 性倾向治疗:有时会称为性倾向修复(reparative therapy),其目的是改变一个非异性恋者的性倾向,使他们不再是同性恋双性恋[240]美国精神医学学会界定性倾向修复疗法是“心理治疗……基于同性恋本身是一种精神障碍的前提或‘病人’应该改变他们同性恋倾向的假设”[241][242][243]
  • 笔迹学:基于相信人格特质会不自觉地影响字迹形态的心理测试——某些类型的人会在用笔时表现出某些怪癖。字迹分析不能提供较猜测更高的人格准确度,神经科学家巴里·贝叶斯滕英语Barry Beyerstein把其比喻成交感巫术[6][26][244][245][246][247]
  • 超心理学:研究超常的心理和精神现象,包括濒死经验通灵现象、灵魂出体宗教经验前世回溯轮回研究等。目的希望透过研究这些超心理现象证实超自然的存在,前世的存在、来世的存在、或宗教神秘学的论据。现时没有证据证明这些心理现象可足够证实超自然现象、前世或来世的存在,也没有科学证据证明这些现象能引证宗教神秘学的论据。[248][249][250] [251]

宗教及神秘学

宗教神秘学,本身并不是伪科学,只是属于非科学的范畴。但是,一些具宗教神秘学概念的学说,包装成科学学说,以科学化的语言诠释,但没有以科学要求的规范下研究的,或缺乏具体科学上要求的证据,或证据不被主流科学界接受的,或不具可证伪性的,则往往被视作伪科学。

例子包括:

参见

注脚

  1. ^ Pollak 2002.
  2. ^ O'Neill 2008.
  3. ^ Rosenbaum 2009
  4. ^ Hummels 2009.
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参考资料

延伸阅读

  • Park, Robert. Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. Oxford University Press. 2000: 240. ISBN 978-0-19-514710-0.
  • Singer, Barry; Abell, George O. Science and the paranormal: probing the existence of the supernatural. New York: Scribner. 1983. ISBN 0-684-17820-6.
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  • Randi, James. Flim-flam!: psychics, ESP, unicorns, and other delusions. Buffalo, N.Y: Prometheus Books. 1982. ISBN 0-87975-198-3.
  • Sagan, Carl. The demon-haunted world: science as a candle in the dark. New York: Ballantine Books. 1997. ISBN 0-345-40946-9.
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