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萨利希语系

Salishan
地理分布加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚美国华盛顿州
谱系学分类美洲原住民语言
分支
贝拉库拉语族
海岸萨利希语族
内陆萨利希语族
语言代码
ISO 639-2 / 5sal
Salishan langs.png
Pre-contact distribution of Salishan languages(红色)

萨利希语系,若根据当地华民对原住民的称呼,亦可作沙利殊语系。它是北美原住民的一个语系,一共包括23种语言,现时分为以下三个分支:贝拉库拉语族、海岸萨利希语族及内陆萨利希语族。

萨利希语言分布在美国华盛顿州以及加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚环萨利希海一带。

这些语言最显著的特征之一是其极为复杂的辅音结构,例如努哈尔克语(Nuxálk)单词xłp̓x̣ʷłtłpłłskʷc̓ (国际音标:[xɬp'χʷɬtɬpɬːskʷʦ'])“他曾经有过一棵草茱萸”有连续13个辅音,中间没有元音。

分支

萨利希语系总共有23种语言,下列为这个语系所包括的所有语言、方言及次方言。这个分类表纯綷照语言学的角度来分类,不涉及政治分界上的考虑。若依照当地原住民社群的意愿,不少方言都被认为应视作独立的语言。

Flathead Indians(1903年)

贝拉库拉语族(Bella Coola

1. 努哈尔克语 (Nuxálk,又名 Bella Coola, Salmon River)

海岸萨利希语族(Coast Salish

A. 中部海岸萨利希语 (a.k.a. Central Salish)
2. Comox
  • Island Comox (a.k.a. Qʼómox̣ʷs)
  • Sliammon (Homalco-Klahoose-Sliammon) (a.k.a. ʔayʔaǰúθəm)
3. 哈尔魁梅林语
Island (a.k.a. Hulʼq̱ʼumiʼnumʼ, həl̕q̓əmín̓əm̓)
  • Cowichan
  • Snuneymuxw/Nanaimo
Downriver (a.k.a. Hunqʼumʔiʔnumʔ)
  • Musqueam
Upriver (a.k.a. Upper Sto:lo, Halqʼəméyləm)
  • Katzie
  • Kwantlen
  • Chehalis (Canada)
  • Chilliwack
  • Tait
  • Skway
4. Lushootseed (a.k.a. Puget Salish, Skagit-Nisqually, Dxʷləšúcid)
Northern
  • Skagit (a.k.a. Skaǰət)
  • Snohomish (a.k.a. Sduhubš)
Southern
  • Duwamish-Suquamish (a.k.a. Dxʷduʔabš)
  • Puyallup (a.k.a. Spuyaləpubš)
  • Nisqually (a.k.a. Sqʷaliʔabš)
5. Nooksack (a.k.a. Nooksack ɬə́čələsəm, ɬə́čælosəm) (†)
6. Pentlatch (a.k.a. Pənƛ̕áč) (†)
7. Sháshíshálh (a.k.a. Sechelt, Seshelt, Shashishalhem, šášíšáɬəm)
8. Squamish (a.k.a. Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim, Sḵwx̱wú7mesh, Sqwxwu7mish, sqʷx̣ʷúʔməš)
i. Straits Salish group (a.k.a. Straits)
9. Klallam (a.k.a. Clallam, Nəxʷsƛ̕áy̓emúcən)
  • Becher Bay
  • Eastern
  • Western
10. 北方海峡萨利希语 (a.k.a. Straits)
  • Lummi (a.k.a. Xwlemiʼchosen, xʷləmiʔčósən) (†)
  • Saanich (a.k.a. SENĆOŦEN, sənčáθən, sénəčqən)
  • Samish (a.k.a. Siʔneməš)
  • Semiahmoo (a.k.a. Tah-tu-lo) (†)
  • Sooke (a.k.a. Tʼsou-ke, c̓awk) (†)
  • Songhees (a.k.a. Lək̓ʷəŋín̓əŋ) (†)
11. Twana (a.k.a. Skokomish, Sqʷuqʷúʔbəšq, Tuwáduqutšad) (†)
  • Quilcene
  • Skokomish (a.k.a. Sqʷuqʷúʔbəšq)
B. Tsamosan (a.k.a. Olympic)
i. Inland
12. Cowlitz (a.k.a. Lower Cowlitz, Sƛ̕púlmš) (†)
13. Upper Chehalis (a.k.a. Q̉ʷay̓áyiɬq̉) (†)
  • Oakville Chehalis
  • Satsop
  • Tenino Chehalis
ii. Maritime
14. Lower Chehalis (a.k.a. ɬəw̓ál̕məš) (†)
  • Humptulips
  • Westport-Shoalwater
  • Wynoochee
15. Quinault (a.k.a. Kʷínayɬ)
  • Queets
  • Quinault
C. Tillamook
16. Tillamook (a.k.a. Hutyéyu) (†)
Siletz
  • Siletz
Tillamook

内陆萨利希语族(Interior Salish

A. 北部(Northern)
17. Shuswap (在 Ubuntu 作 Secwepemctsín,səxwəpməxcín)
东部方言
  • Kinbasket
  • Shuswap Lake
西部方言
  • Canim Lake
  • Chu Chua
  • Deadman's Creek–Kamloops
  • Fraser River
  • Pavilion-Bonaparte
18. Stʼatʼimcets (a.k.a. Lillooet, Lilloet, St'át'imcets)
  • Lillooet-Fountain
  • Mount Currie–Douglas
19. Thompson River Salish (a.k.a. Nlakaʼpamux, Ntlakapmuk, nɬeʔkepmxcín, Thompson River, Thompson Salish, Thompson, known in frontier times as the Hakamaugh, Klackarpun, Couteau or Knife Indians)
  • Lytton
  • Nicola Valley
  • Spuzzum–Boston Bar
  • Thompson Canyon
B. 南部(Southern)
20. Coeur d’Alene (a.k.a. Snchitsuʼumshtsn, snčícuʔumšcn)
21. Columbia-Moses (a.k.a. Columbia, Nxaʔamxcín)
  • Chelan
  • Entiat
  • Columbian
  • Wenatchee (a.k.a. Pesquous)
22. Colville-Okanagan (a.k.a. Okanagan, Nsilxcín, Nsíylxcən, ta nukunaqínxcən)
Northern
  • Quilchena & Spaxomin[1]
  • Arrow Lakes
  • Penticton
  • Similkameen
  • Vernon
Southern
  • Colville-Inchelium
  • Methow
  • San Poil–Nespelem
  • Southern Okanogan
23. Spokane-Kalispel-Bitterroot Salish-Upper Pend d'Oreille
  • Salish (a.k.a. Séliš, Bitterroot Salish, Flathead)
  • Kalispel (a.k.a. Qalispé)
  • Chewelah
  • Kalispel (a.k.a. Qlispé, Lower Pend d'Oreille, Lower Kalispel)
  • Upper Pend d’Oreile (a.k.a. Čłqetkʷmcin, Qlispé)
  • Spokane (a.k.a. Npoqínišcn)

Pentlatch, Nooksack, Twana, Lower Chehalis, Upper Chehalis, Cowlitz, 及 Tillamook 等多个语言现时均已消亡。此外,北方海峡的 Lummi, Semiahmoo, Songhees 及 Sooke 等方言亦同样已消亡。

参考资料

脚注

  1. ^ 存档副本. [2020-09-18]. (原始内容存档于2001-10-22).

参考文献

  • Boas, Franz, et al. (1917). Folk-Tales of Salishan and Sahaptin Tribes. Memoirs of the American Folk-lore Society, 11. Lancaster, Pa: American Folk-Lore Society.
  • Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa; & Kinkade, M. Dale (Eds.). (1997). Salish languages and linguistics: Theoretical and descriptive perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015492-7.
  • Flathead Culture Committee. (1981). Common Names of the Flathead Language. St. Ignatius, Mont: The Committee.
  • Kroeber, Paul D. (1999). The Salish language family: Reconstructing syntax. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press in cooperation with the American Indian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington.
  • Kuipers, Aert H. (2002).Salish Etymological Dictionary. Missoula, MT: Linguistics Laboratory, University of Montana. ISBN 1879763168
  • Liedtke, Stefan. (1995). Wakashan, Salishan and Penutian and Wider Connections Cognate Sets. Linguistic data on diskette series, no. 09. Munchen: Lincom Europa,z\v1995.
  • Pilling, James Constantine. (1893). Bibliography of the Salishan Languages. Washington: G.P.O..
  • Pilling, James Constantine (2007). Bibliography of the Salishan Languages. Reprint by Gardners Books. ISBN 9781430469278
  • Thompson, Laurence C. (1973). The northwest. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Linguistics in North America (pp. 979–1045). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hague: Mouton.
  • Thompson, Laurence C. (1979). Salishan and the northwest. In L. Campbell & M. Mithun (Eds.), The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment (pp. 692–765). Austin: University of Texas Press.

外部链接


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