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盖尔人

盖尔人 Gaels
Na Gaeil Na Gàidheil Ny Gaeil
Le monde gael.jpg
绿色表示中世纪时期语言、文化上属于盖尔人的地域,其中深绿表示其存在较为长期和强势
总人口
约190万(语言上)
分布地区
 爱尔兰1,770,000(语言上)[1]
 英国
(主要分布在苏格兰北爱尔兰
122,518(语言上)[2]
 美国27,475(语言上)[3]
 加拿大9,000(语言上)[4]
 澳大利亚2,717(语言上)[5]
新西兰670(语言上)
语言
盖尔亚支语言
爱尔兰语苏格兰盖尔语曼岛语
以及非盖尔语言英语低地苏格兰语
宗教信仰
基督教 无宗教(历史上:爱尔兰神话
相关族群
诺斯-盖尔人英语Norse–Gaels 爱尔兰诺曼人英语Normans in Ireland(盖尔化诺曼人)

盖尔人(英语:The Gaels /ɡlz/爱尔兰语Na Gaeil [ɡeːl]苏格兰盖尔语Na Gàidheil [ˈkɛː.el]曼岛语Ny Gaeil [ge:l])是一个民族语言集团,凯尔特人的一支,源自西北欧爱尔兰苏格兰曼岛[a][9]他们与盖尔亚支语言关系紧密,它是凯尔特语族的一个分支,其中包括爱尔兰语曼岛语苏格兰盖尔语。历史上,“Irish”(爱尔兰人)和“Scots”(苏格兰人)是对盖尔人的统称,但如今这些族群国籍的范围更加复杂。

盖尔人的语言和文化起源于爱尔兰,并延伸至苏格兰西部的达尔里阿达王国。古代盖尔人与罗马帝国进行贸易,并突袭了罗马时期的不列颠。在中世纪,盖尔文化在整个苏格兰的其他地区和曼岛占据了主导地位。威尔士和康瓦尔郡也有一些盖尔人定居点。在维京时代,一些维京人突袭并定居在盖尔地区,成为诺斯-盖尔人英语Norse–Gaels(即北欧盖尔人)。在9世纪,达尔·里阿达(Dál Riata)和皮克特合并,组成了盖尔人的阿尔巴王国英语Kingdom of Alba。同时,盖尔爱尔兰由多个王国组成,高王(High King)要求这些王国忠于他。

12世纪,诺曼人英语Normans in Ireland征服了爱尔兰的部分地区(导致数个世纪的冲突),而苏格兰的部分地区则被诺曼化。然而,盖尔文化在整个爱尔兰、苏格兰高地加洛韦英语Galloway仍然强势。17世纪初期,爱尔兰最后的盖尔王国落入英国的控制。詹姆斯一世试图征服盖尔族并消灭它们的文化。在爱尔兰,其方式是以说英语的英国定居者殖民盖尔人土地;在苏格兰高地则是通过诸如《爱奥那章程》(Statutes of Iona)等压制性法律。在接下来的几个世纪中,盖尔语受到压制,大部分被英语排挤。但是,它仍然是爱尔兰的爱尔兰语区和苏格兰的外赫布里底群岛的主要语言。盖尔人的现代后代遍布英国、美洲大洋洲

传统的盖尔社会组织成氏族,各自都有自己的领土和王,通过选长制英语Tanistry产生。从基督教世界的视角看,爱尔兰人过去是异教徒,他们崇拜图哈德达南崇拜祖先并信仰异世界。他们的四个年度节日——夏末节英语Samhain圣烛节贝尔丹火焰节和Lughnasa——一直持续到近代。盖尔人有着丰富的口头传统,传统上由“Seanchaí”讲述。欧甘字母的碑刻始于公元4世纪。他们依基督教后,伴随着拉丁字母的引入,爱尔兰盖尔语拥有了西欧最古老的白话文学。爱尔兰神话和Brehon法律尽管被基督教化,但仍保留了下来。盖尔修道院是著名的学习中心,并且在发展岛屿艺术(Insular art)方面起着关键作用,而盖尔传教士和学者在西欧具有很大的影响力。在中世纪,大多数盖尔人都住在roundhouse和ringfort中。盖尔人有自己的着装风格,在苏格兰演变成了格子花腰带和苏格兰裙。他们也有独特的音乐、舞蹈、节日和体育活动。盖尔文化至今仍是爱尔兰苏格兰英语Culture of Scotland曼岛文化英语Culture of the Isle of Man的重要组成部分。

名称

几个世纪以来,盖尔人和盖尔语使用者以许多名字而闻名。其中维持最久的是盖尔人(Gael)、爱尔兰人(Irish)和苏格兰人(Scots)。由于包含了非盖尔人在内的民族国家的现代早期概念,后两者的含义变得模糊。其他称呼(例如米列希安 Milesians)并不常用。[10]盖尔人的古诺斯语名字是“Vestmenn”(=Westmen,即“西人”)。[11]非正式地,盖尔有时还被叫作Tadhg或Dòmhnall等早期称呼。[12]

参见

注释

  1. ^ 根据联合国的定义,盖尔人并没有被正式承认为土著人,也没有被正式承认为殖民的受害者,但著名的历史学家如迈克尔·牛顿(Michael Newton)、阿拉斯泰尔·麦金托什(Alastair MacIntosh)和伊恩·麦金农( Iain Mackinnon)提出了这一观点。[6][7][8]

参考文献

  1. ^ Census 2011: 1.77m say they are able to speak Irish. The Journal. 7 February 2014.
  2. ^ Census 2011: Key Statistics for Northern Ireland (PDF). Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 7 February 2014.
  3. ^ Osbourn 2006,第204页.
  4. ^ National Household Survey (NHS) 2011. Statistics Canada. 8 May 2013 [7 February 2015].
  5. ^ The Irish language in Australia: sociocultural identity in diasporic minority language use. Jill Vaughan. 7 February 2015.
  6. ^ Brown, Daniel Guy. The Highland Clearances and the Politics of Memory. 2014 [2 July 2017].
  7. ^ The Scottish Highlands in Colonial & Psychodynamic Perspective. www.alastairmcintosh.com. [2 July 2017].
  8. ^ Mackinnon, Iain. Colonialism and the Highland Clearances. Northern Scotland. 1 May 2017, 8 (1): 22–48. ISSN 0306-5278. doi:10.3366/nor.2017.0125.
  9. ^ Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome "Three Bronze Age individuals from Rathlin Island (2026–1534 cal BC), including one high coverage (10.5×) genome, showed substantial Steppe genetic heritage indicating that the European population upheavals of the third millennium manifested all of the way from southern Siberia to the western ocean. This turnover invites the possibility of accompanying introduction of Indo-European, perhaps early Celtic, language. Irish Bronze Age haplotypic similarity is strongest within modern Irish, Scottish, and Welsh populations, and several important genetic variants that today show maximal or very high frequencies in Ireland appear at this horizon. These include those coding for lactase persistence, blue eye color, Y chromosome R1b haplotypes, and the hemochromatosis C282Y allele; to our knowledge, the first detection of a known Mendelian disease variant in prehistory. These findings together suggest the establishment of central attributes of the Irish genome 4,000 y ago."
  10. ^ Did the Irish Come from Spain?. History Ireland. Autumn 2001.
  11. ^ Woolf, Alex. From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070. Edinburgh University Press. 2007: 283.
  12. ^ O'Leary 2004.

参考书目

  • Bartlett, Robert. The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950–1350. Penguin. 1994. ISBN 978-0140154092.
  • Bateman, Mary. Duanaire Na Sracaire: Songbook of the Pillagers, Anthology of Scottish Gaelic Verse to 1600. Birlinn. 2007. ISBN 978-1841581811.
  • Bradshaw, Brendan. Representing Ireland: Literature and the Origins of Conflict, 1534-1660. Cambridge University Press. 1993. ISBN 978-0521416344.
  • Bradshaw, Brendan. 'And so began the Irish Nation': Nationality, National Consciousness and Nationalism in Pre-modern Ireland. Ashgate Publishing. 2015. ISBN 978-1472442567.
  • Byrne, Francis J. Irish Kings and High Kings. Four Courts Press. 1973. ISBN 978-1851821969.
  • Calloway, Colin G. White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal People and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America. Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0199737826.
  • Canny, Nicholas. Making Ireland British, 1580-1650. OUP Oxford. 2001. ISBN 978-0199259052.
  • Charles-Edwards, T. M. Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge University Press. 2007. ISBN 9780521037167.
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen. The Triumph Tree: Scotland's Earliest Poetry AD 550-1350. Canongate Classics. 2008. ISBN 978-0862417871.
  • Connolly, S. J. Contested Island: Ireland 1460-1630. OUP Oxford. 2009. ISBN 978-0199563715.
  • Connolly, S. J. Divided Kingdom: Ireland 1630-1800. OUP Oxford. 2010. ISBN 978-0199583874.
  • Coogan, Tim Pat. The Famine Plot: England's Role in Ireland's Greatest Tragedy. Palgrave Macmillan. 2013. ISBN 978-1137278838.
  • Crowley, Tony. Wars of Words: The Politics of Language in Ireland 1537-2004. OUP Oxford. 2008. ISBN 978-0199532766.
  • Doyle, Aidan. A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence. OUP Oxford. 2015. ISBN 978-0198724766.
  • Ellis, Peter Berresford. Erin's Blood Royal: The Gaelic Noble Dynasties of Ireland. Palgrave Macmillan. 2002. ISBN 978-0312230494.
  • Denvir, John. The Irish in Britain from the Earliest Times to the Fall and Death of Parnell. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner. 1892.
  • Gibbons, Luke. Gaelic Gothic: Race, Colonization and Irish Culture. Alren House. 2004. ISBN 978-1903631393.
  • Gibson, D. Blair. From Chiefdom to State in Early Ireland. Cambridge University Press. 2012. ISBN 978-1107015630.
  • Harbison, Peter. The Golden Age of Irish Art: The Medieval Achievement 600-1200. Thames & Hudson. 1999. ISBN 978-0500019276.
  • Kinsella, Thomas. An Duanaire 1600-1900: Poems of the Dispossessed. Dolmen Press. 1981. ISBN 978-0851053646.
  • Koch, John T. Trafodion Anhrydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion; cyfres newydd vol. 9. The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. 2004: 41–56 [2003]. ISSN 0959-3632.
  • Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. 2004. ISBN 978-1851094400.
  • Leerssen, Joep. Mere Irish and Fior-Ghael: Studies in the Idea of Irish Nationality, Its Development and Literary Expression Prior to the Nineteenth Century. University of Notre Dame Press. 1997. ISBN 978-0268014278.
  • Lenihan, Patrick. Consolidating Conquest: Ireland 1603-1727. Routledge. 2007. ISBN 978-0582772175.
  • Mac Giolla Chríost, Diarmait. The Irish Language in Ireland: From Goídel to Globalisation. Routledge. 2005. ISBN 978-0415320467.
  • Mac Síomoín, Tomás. The Broken Harp: Identity and Language in Modern Ireland. Nuascealta. 2014. ISBN 978-1502974570.
  • Macleod, John. Highlanders: A History of the Gaels. Sceptre. 1997. ISBN 978-0340639917.
  • MacManus, Seamus. The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland. The Irish Publishing Company. 1921. ISBN 978-0-517-06408-5.
  • McLeod, Wilson. Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland C.1200-C.1650. OUP Oxford. 2004. ISBN 978-0199247226.
  • Newton, Michael. A Handbook of the Scottish Gaelic World. Four Courts Press. 2000. ISBN 978-1851825417.
  • Newton, Michael. Warriors of the Word: The World of the Scottish Highlanders. Birlinn. 2009. ISBN 978-1841588261.
  • O'Callaghan, Sean. To Hell or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland. Brandon. 2001. ISBN 978-0863222870.
  • O'Conor Don, Charles. Dissertations on the Ancient History of Ireland. J. Christie. 1753.
  • Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí. A New History of Ireland, Volume I: Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 9780199226658.
  • O'Duffy, Séan. Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. 2005. ISBN 978-1135948245.
  • Ó Flaithbheartaigh, Ruaidhrí. Ogygia: A Chronological Account of Irish Events. B. Tooke. 1685.
  • O'Halloran, Sylvester. A General History of Ireland. Hamilton. 1778.
  • Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. The Sacred Isle: Belief and Religion in Pre-Christian Ireland. Boydell Press. 2001. ISBN 9780851157474.
  • O'Leary, Philip. The Prose Literature of the Gaelic Revival, 1881-1921. Pennsylvania State University Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0271025964.
  • Ó Muraíle, Nollaig. The Great Book of Irish Genealogies. De Burca Books. 2004. ISBN 978-0946130368.
  • O'Sullivan Beare, Philip. Catholic History of Ireland. Spain. 1621.
  • Osbourn, Terry A. Teaching World Languages for Social Justice: A Sourcebook of Principles and Practices. Routledge. 2006. ISBN 978-1135609856.
  • Patterson, Nerys T. Cattle Lords and Clansmen: The Social Structure of Early Ireland. Garland Press. 1991. ISBN 9780268008000.
  • Rankin, David. Celts and the Classical World. Routledge. 2002. ISBN 978-1134747214.
  • Richards, Eric. Patrick Sellar and the Highland Clearances: Homicide, Eviction and the Price of Progress. Edinburgh University Press. 1999. ISBN 9781902930138.
  • Tanner, Marcus. The Last of the Celts. Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 9780300115352.
  • Thornton, David E. Kings, Chronologies, and Genealogies: Studies in the Political History of Early Medieval Ireland and Wales. Occasional Publications UPR. 2003. ISBN 978-1900934091.
  • Welch, Robert. Irish Writers and Religion. Rowman & Littlefield. 1992. ISBN 978-0389209638.
  • Watson, Moray. The Edinburgh Companion to the Gaelic Language. Edinburgh University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0748637096.
  • Woolfe, Alex. From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070. Edinburgh University Press. 2007. ISBN 978-0748612338.

外部链接


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