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自然景观

自然景观是指一地区在人类活动之前,就已存在的原始景观[note 1]。自然景观和文化景观英语cultural landscape是景观二个不同的层面[note 2]。不过在二十一世纪时,地球上已找不到人类未曾活动过的地方[来源请求],因此有时“自然景观是指景观中和自然有关的成分[note 3]

雷切尔·卡森在《寂静的春天》(1962)中曾描述路边以往的景色:“一年当中大部分的时间,路边的月桂树、荚蒾、桤木、大型蕨类及野花吸引著旅客的目光”,而在使用除草剂后,“曾经吸引目光的路边,现今铺满了褐色枯萎的植物,看起来好像被火烧过一样。”[3]。在路边使用除草剂之前,可能已经有生物退化的情形,也可能有外来物种,但仍然可以从其中感受到自然景观的概念。

“自然景观”一词最早是和风景画景观设计的词语一起出现,是更接近自然的风格。亚历山大·冯·洪堡(1769 – 1859)更进一步的概念化,将自然景观和文化景观分开。1908年时,地理学家奥托·施吕特英语Otto Schlüter发展出“原始景观”Urlandschaft以及“文化景观”Kulturlandschaft的词语,试图突显地理科学中,一个不同于其他科学的主题。早期地理学家使用“自然景观”一词可以回推到卡尔·欧·绍尔英语Carl O. Sauer1925年的论文《景观形态》(The Morphology of Landscape)[4]

相关条目

脚注

  1. ^ "The area prior to the introduction of man 's activity is represented by one body of morphologic facts. The forms that man has introduced are another set. We may call the former, with reference to man, the original, natural landscape. In its entirety it no longer exists in many parts of the world, but its reconstruction and understanding are the first part of formal morphonology." [1]
  2. ^ "The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a culture group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape the result." [2]
  3. ^ The European Environment Agency's planned forest naturalness index is an example of an attempt to define one type of natural landscape in Europe. The Agency lists forests in three categories: (1) Plantations; (2) Semi-natural; and (3) Naturally dynamic. The latter are "forests whose structure, composition and function have been shaped by natural dynamics without substantial anthropogenic influence over a long period of time".

参考资料

  1. ^ Carl O. Sauer, "The Morphology of Landscape". University of California Publications in Geography, vol. 2, No. 2, 12 October 1925, p. 37. https://archive.org/stream/universityofc02univ/universityofc02univ_djvu.txt
  2. ^ Carl O. Sauer, "The Morphology of Landscape", p. 46.
  3. ^ Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1962, p. 1.
  4. ^ Carl O. Sauer, "The Morphology of Landscape". University of California Publications in Geography 2 (2), pp. 19-53.

外部链接

  • Developing a forest naturalness indicator for Europe [1]
  • Scottish heritage: Natural Spaces [2]
  • Carl O. Sauer, "The Morphology of Landscape" University of California Publications in Geography, vol. 2, No. 2, 12 October 1925, pp. 19–53 (scroll down): [3]

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