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美洲原住民语言

美洲原住民语言并不是一种语言,甚至也不是属于一种语系,而是美洲所有原住民的各种语言的总称。其中玛雅语曾经有自己的文字系统。随着15世纪末开始西方殖民主义者的到来,美洲原住民数量在几百年的时间里锐减,再加上文化的同化,大部分美洲原住民语言都已经灭绝,目前即使会说美洲土著语言的大部分人也是操双语的人群。因为缺少研究材料,对美洲土著语言的研究很不足,目前对许多美洲土著语言的分类说法不一,尚不能把语系确定下来,只能暂时分为语组,大致有如下个语组,有几百种以上的语言,有许多语言现在能流利的说的人不足几十甚至几个人,大部分已经灭绝。

Langs N.Amer.png
南美的大语系:黑点表示孤立语言,灰点表示语系划分有争议的语言

语系种类

  • 萨利希语系(Salishan)分布从加拿大西部到美国西部太平洋沿岸:
    • 贝拉库拉语族(Bella Coola)
    • 海岸萨利希语族(Coast Salish)
    • 内陆萨利希语族(Interior Salish)
  • 卡多语系(Caddoan)分布在美国中部大平原地区
  • 舒阿尔语系(Shuar)分布在亚马逊河上游森林中地区

参考文献

引用

来源

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北美洲
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南美洲
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外部链接


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