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海什木本文重定向自 海什木

阿尔·哈金
Hazan.png
阿尔·哈金(伊本·海什木)
出生公元(965-07-01)965年7月1日[1] (伊斯兰历354 年)[2]
现今伊拉克巴士拉
逝世1040年3月6日(1040岁-03-06)(74岁)[1] (伊斯兰历430年)[3]
法蒂玛王朝埃及开罗
居住地巴士拉
开罗
知名于《光学之书》、《有关托勒密的疑点》、《世界的结构》、《运动模式》、《光论》、《地方论》等, 科学方法, 实验科学, 实验物理学, 实验心理学, 视知觉, 解析几何, 天文学, 天体力学
科学生涯
研究领域物理学数学
受影响自亚里士多德, 欧几里得, 托勒密
施影响于伊本·鲁世德, 威特罗, 罗吉尔·培根, 开普勒

海什木(阿拉伯语:محمد بن الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم أبو على البصري,拉丁化:Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham)是阿拉伯学者、物理学家、数学家,全名穆哈默德·本·哈桑·本·海什木·巴士拉,其名在西文中又写作Al Hazen,中文译作“海桑”、“哈金”等。有大量著作和被现代科学证明了的科学发现,尤其在光学研究方面有突出成就。

生平

海什木出生于公元965年7月1日(伊斯兰历354年)在伊拉克巴士拉城。被认为是在不同学科都有杰出的成绩,如数学、天文学、医学等等,他早期学习工程,读希腊科学的书,和关于安达卢西亚学说的精华,接收并发展了这些学说。当时的埃及哈里发召集他参与控制尼罗河泛滥的工程,但是经过他的研究发现那是不可能实现的,从而招致哈里发非常愤怒。于是海什木就以装疯的方式避免了严重惩罚,转而被软禁,直到哈里发1021年死去。在此期间他完成了大量重要的数学论文。

科学成就

著作

注释

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Lorch 2008
  2. ^ Charles M. Falco, Ibn al-Haytham and the Origins of Computerized Image Analysis (PDF), International Conference on Computer Engineering & Systems (ICCES), November 27–29, 2007 [2010-01-30][永久失效链接]
  3. ^ Franz Rosenthal, Al-Mubashshir ibn Fâtik. Prolegomena to an Abortive Edition, Oriens (Brill Publishers), 1960–1961, 13: 132–158 [136–7], JSTOR 1580309
  4. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为mathsong.com的参考文献提供内容

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扩展阅读

主要文献

  • Sabra, A. I., ed., The Optics of Ibn al-Haytham, Books I-II-III: On Direct Vision. The Arabic text, edited and with Introduction, Arabic-Latin Glossaries and Concordance Tables, Kuwait: National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters, 1983
  • Sabra, A. I., ed., The Optics of Ibn al-Haytham. Edition of the Arabic Text of Books IV-V: On Reflection and Images Seen by Reflection. 2 vols, Kuwait: The National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters, 2002
  • Sabra, A. I., trans., The Optics of Ibn al-Haytham. Books I-II-III: On Direct Vision. English Translation and Commentary. 2 vols, Studies of the Warburg Institute, vol. 40, London: The Warburg Institute, University of London, 1989, ISBN 0-85481-072-2, OCLC 165564751 165564771 180528350 180528355 180528359 21530166 230045836 24910015 59836570
  • Smith, A. Mark, ed. and trans., 写于Philadelphia, Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception: A Critical Edition, with English Translation and Commentary, of the First Three Books of Alhacen's De aspectibus, the Medieval Latin Version of Ibn al-Haytham's Kitāb al-Manāzir, 2 vols., Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society), 2001, 91 (4-5), ISBN 0-87169-914-1, OCLC 47168716
  • Smith, A. Mark, ed. and trans., Alhacen on the Principles of Reflection: A Critical Edition, with English Translation and Commentary, of Books 4 and 5 of Alhacen's De Aspectibus, the Medieval Latin version of Ibn-al-Haytham's Kitāb al-Manāzir, 2 vols, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Soc.), 2006, 96 (2–3), ISBN 0-87169-962-1, OCLC 123464885 185359947 185359957 219328717 219328739 70078653

其他文献

  • Graham, Mark. How Islam Created the Modern World. Amana Publications, 2006.
  • Omar, Saleh Beshara, Ibn al-Haytham and Greek optics: a comparative study in scientific methodology, PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, June 1975
  • Saliba, George, Islamic Science and the Making of the European Reneissance, MIT Press, 2007, ISBN 0-262-19557-7
  • Belting, Hans, Afterthoughts on Alhazen’s Visual Theory and Its Presence in the Pictorial Theory of Western Perspective, in: Variantology 4. On Deep Time Relations of Arts, Sciences and Technologies In the Arabic-Islamic World and Beyond, ed. by Siegfried Zielinski and Eckhard Fürlus in cooperation with Daniel Irrgang and Franziska Latell (Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, 2010), pp. 19–42. [1]
  • Siegfried Zielinski & Franziska Latell, How One Sees, in: Variantology 4. On Deep Time Relations of Arts, Sciences and Technologies In the Arabic-Islamic World and Beyond, ed. by Siegfried Zielinski and Eckhard Fürlus in cooperation with Daniel Irrgang and Franziska Latell (Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, 2010), pp. 19–42. [2]

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