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极右翼本文重定向自 極右派

(重定向自极右政治)
日本极右翼团体在锦糸町车站南口广场进行演说

极右派(英语:Far-right politics),又称极右翼,是指其政治立场位于政治光谱最右端的人士或组织。“极右”也常被许多政治评论家用来描述一些难以归入传统右派的政治团体、运动和政党。[1]

一些学者使用“极端右派”(Extreme Right)或“偏激右派”(Ultra Right)来讨论位于传统选举政治范围以外的右派政治团体,通常有革命右派份子、好战的种族至上主义者和宗教极端主义者、新法西斯主义者新纳粹主义者三K党员等。在这种用法中,该名词与不好战的极右派或右派民粹主义者等其他形式的极右派有所区别。[2]

学者在使用“极右派”时有着至少两种冲突的用法:[3]

倾向改革的右派运动或保守派政党中的右派派系。他们常被称为“不同政见的右派”(Dissident Right)、“行动主义右派”(Activist Right)或“右翼民粹主义”(Right-wing Populism)。他们的立场介于传统保守派和极端右派之间。这些人士位于主流选举政治之外,但他们一般是发起改革运动,而非革命。一些被认为的“极右派”的政党则是因为与原主流中间偏右保守主义政党意见不合,认为他们的政策和理念已偏离原来的右派路线,如英国独立党

新法西斯主义者新纳粹主义者时常被视为“极右派”或“偏激右派”。这些团体通常具有革命性质,而非改革。新法西斯和新纳粹也意指他们来自二战之后的时代。

由于这些分类尚未普遍被接受,以及还有其他的用法存在,因此让“极右派”的用法较为复杂。

用法

19世纪末期,法国政治光谱可分为极左派社会主义激进派)、左派社会主义者与进步主义者)、中间偏左自由派共和党人)、中间派(温和派、保守派共和党人) 、中间偏右君主立宪支持者、奥尔良派、保守派共和党人、波拿巴主义者)、右派保守主义者)和极右派(保守主义激进派、极端民族主义者、保皇派和正统派)。

不同学者在“极右派”的使用上有着冲突的用法。[4] “极右派”最常用来描述法西斯主义纳粹主义和其他偏激民族主义者,以及其他的反动意识形态与运动。[5][6][7][8]

荷兰已故极右派政治家皮姆·富图恩,因他的反移民反穆斯林政策而被英国广播公司称为极右派。[9]全国公共广播电台等曾使用“极右派”来描述一些宣扬利伯维尔场资本主义的威权独裁政府,像是智利奥古斯托·皮诺切特[10][11]

左派刊物《新左派评论》曾称雷根的政策是“激进右派”(Radical Right)。[12]“激进右派”也被用来表示“视个人为核心的自由意志主义运动”。[13]

美国国土安全部将右派极端主义定义为目标放在激进、种族或宗教少数份子的仇恨团体,而且仇恨团体可能致力于某项单一议题,如反堕胎、反同性恋和反移民。[14]

但极右派这个说法常会使人误解,一些左翼人士及政治人物会以极右派来称呼一些强硬和保守的右翼政治人物,这些政治人物大多并非极右派,即使这些政治人物或会涉及种族歧视性别歧视恐同的言论,但不能归纳为极右派。现时许多人所认为的“极右派”政党实际上是右派民粹主义政党,虽然这些右翼政党抱持着民族主义,加上在社会政策上属于右翼保守派如反对堕胎,但亦支持保障社会福利及政府干预市场经济、集体主义民族社会主义的经济政策,欧洲的右派民粹政党便一直主张强调保护本国工人权益,反对引入外国移民进入劳动市场,近年欧洲移民危机,欧洲的右派民粹政党便主张反对来自伊斯兰教国家为主的移民及难民进入欧洲,作为主要政纲。

各国家和地区的极右派政党和组织

亚洲

欧洲

非洲

大洋洲

北美洲

南美洲

南极洲

(暂无)

参见

参考文献

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参考书目



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