万维百科

新西班牙

新西班牙总督辖区
Virreinato de Nueva España
1521年-1821年
{{{coat_alt}}}
国徽
国歌:皇家进行曲

1795年,西班牙帝国殖民地最盛疆域。
1795年,西班牙帝国殖民地最盛疆域。
地位西班牙帝国总督辖区
首都墨西哥城
常用语言西班牙语(官方)
其他语言:法语纳瓦特语玛雅语美洲原住民语言菲律宾语台湾原住民语言
宗教罗马天主教
政府总督辖区
西班牙国王 
• 1535-1556
卡洛斯一世 (首任)
• 1813-1821
费尔南多七世(末任)
总督英语List of viceroys of New Spain 
• 1535-1550
安东尼奥·德·门多萨英语Antonio de Mendoza(首任)
• 1821
胡安·奥多诺胡英语Juan O'Donojú(行政长官)
立法机构印度议会
历史时期殖民时期
1519–1521年
• 总督辖区成立
1521年
• 委内瑞拉省英语Venezuela Province并入新格林纳达总督辖区
1717年5月27日
1739年
1800年10月1日
1819年2月22日
• 西班牙立宪革命废止了新西班牙总督辖区
1820年5月31日
1821年1810年-
人口
• 1519年
2000万
• 1810年
500到650万
货币西班牙殖民雷亚尔英语Spanish colonial real
前身 继承
[[古巴州英语Governorate of Cuba]]
阿兹特克帝国
塔拉斯卡王国
玛雅文明
法属路易斯安那
美洲原住民
汤都王国
特拉斯卡拉联邦
宿雾拉贾国
梅尼拉王国
[[Madja-as英语Madja-as]]
新格拉纳达总督辖区
西属西印度群岛
西属东印度群岛
法属路易斯安那
佛罗里达领地
俄勒冈郡
墨西哥第一帝国
今属于

新西班牙总督辖区(西班牙语:Virreinato de Nueva España IPA[birei̯ˈnato ðe ˈnweβa esˈpaɲa]),西班牙管理北美洲菲律宾的一个殖民地总督辖地,首府位于墨西哥城。新西班牙总督的管辖范围包含今墨西哥中美洲(除巴拿马)、美国加利福尼亚州内华达州犹他州科罗拉多州亚利桑那州新墨西哥州得克萨斯州、今日加拿大英属哥伦比亚的西南部,加上危地马拉都督府(包括今日的危地马拉、墨西哥恰帕斯州伯利兹哥斯达黎加萨尔瓦多洪都拉斯尼加拉瓜)和古巴都督府(包含今日的古巴、墨西哥恰帕斯州伯利兹多米尼加特立尼达和多巴哥波多黎各瓜地洛普),以及亚洲菲律宾都督府(包含今日的菲律宾关岛加罗林群岛马里亚纳群岛西属台北德那第苏丹国)。

中国明代传教士艾儒略所著《职方外纪》称为“新以西把尼亚”。

1535年后,殖民地开始由新西班牙总督英语List of viceroys of New Spain实行君权统治,总督由西班牙国王指派。首府设在墨西哥城[1][2]

新西班牙的领土有些被其他欧洲强权夺取,有些独立建国,而其核心区域则一直在西班牙统治下,直到1821年独立成墨西哥第一帝国,该帝国解体后成为今日的墨西哥中美洲。新西班牙的行政区划高度在地化,其分区以气候、地形、原住民人口密度进行划分。墨西哥中部与南部原住民人口密度高,拥有复杂的社会、政治和经济组织。墨西哥北部的原住民则是游牧或半游牧民族,本来无法发展成密集人口的社会。然而1540年代于萨卡特卡斯发现了银矿后,开始涌入更多的定居人口。银矿不只是新西班牙的经济命脉,同时也是西班牙快速致富的关键,改变了全球经济。新西班牙是菲律宾贸易在新世界的终点站,使得该地成为西班牙新世界帝国与亚洲帝国之间的重要连接点。

新西班牙王国与西班牙王位之间的关系

1521年,西班牙人征服了阿兹特克帝国后,建立了新西班牙王国这个新世界王国。由于伊莎贝拉一世资助了美洲的探险活动,因此新西班牙国王的头衔属于西班牙君主。[3][4]虽然新西班牙为西班牙的附属地,然而名义上并非殖民地而是一个“王国”,其王位附属在西班牙王位之下[5]。君主在海外领地中有至高无上的权力。

国王并不仅仅拥有统治权,还拥有所有权:对于美洲领地中的一切财产,国王拥有绝对的所有权;政治上则是独揽大权的统治者。一切的特权、职位﹑经济政治或宗教都是由国王掌控。[5]

新西班牙总督辖区1535年在新西班牙王国中建立。是西班牙第一个拥有的总督辖区,也是18世纪波旁改革前仅有的两个总督辖区之一。

历史

在1521年之前,西班牙尚未征服阿兹特克帝国时,西班牙人在加勒比海群岛及其周边地区进行的探险和拓荒,在政治上、战略上、或甚至经济上都不具重要性。然而西班牙人于这些在加勒比地区先行的探险、征服、拓垦和直辖统治,不但颇具成效,且深远影响着周边地区,例如墨西哥和秘鲁。[6] 西班牙人所控制的中部美洲当地社会,比起他们在加勒比地区所遇见的社会更加复杂且富裕。对卡斯蒂利亚王权而言,既是重要的机会也是潜在的威胁,因为征服者不受王权约束,而独自行动。这些中美洲当地社会提供了如同埃尔南·科尔特斯这样的征服者自治的基础,甚至从王权中独立出来。

因此神圣罗马皇帝兼西班牙国王查理五世于1524年设立了印度议会,以皇家直辖的权力负责监督与确保王权在新世界的利益。

行政区划

1795年的新西班牙版图
1819年与美国签订《亚当斯-奥尼斯条约》后的新西班牙北部

相关条目

参考文献

引用

来源

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延伸阅读

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外部链接


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