万维百科

斯基泰人本文重定向自 斯基泰人

斯基泰人
Scythia-Parthia 100 BC.png
斯基泰人公元前1世纪的分布范围
总人口
不详
分布地区
今乌克兰
今俄罗斯南部
今阿塞拜疆
中亚
今阿富汗东部
今巴基斯坦
今印度北部
今中国大陆西北部
相关族群
印度-伊朗人
公元前4世纪的斯基泰金梳
斯基泰武士
斯基泰金饰

斯基泰人古希腊语ΣκύθηςΣκύθοι;英语: Scythian)也译为斯基泰人斯基提亚人西古提人[1]叔提雅人[2]西徐亚人塞西亚人,为古代在东欧大草原中亚一带居住与活动、操东伊朗语支的游牧民族或半游牧民族,他们的领土被称为斯基提亚;古代波斯人称之为塞克人(古波斯语:Sakā,也译为萨迦人),共分为戴尖帽塞克人、饮豪麻汁塞克人、海边塞克人[3]。中国《史记》、《汉书》记录的塞种可能源自这个民族[4]

主流学术界一般认同斯基泰人为伊朗人的分支[5],他们的语言为东伊朗语支[6],并信仰一种前祆教时期古伊朗宗教的变种宗教[7]。为最早使用骑兵的民族之一[8],在公元前8世纪取代了辛梅里亚人成为东欧大草原的霸主[9],在这段时期斯基泰人及其分支民族几乎统治了整个欧亚大草原,从喀尔巴阡山脉一直到陕甘宁盆地都是他们的地盘[10][11],创造了人类历史上首个游牧帝国[9][12]。盘据在今乌克兰和南俄一带的斯基泰人自称“苏格洛提”,由称为“斯基泰皇室”的游牧战士贵族所带领。

在公元前7世纪,斯基泰人与西米里亚人一起跨越高加索山脉并频密地洗劫中东地区,为当地的政治发展充当了重要角色[9][12]。大约在公元前650到630年,斯基泰人短暂支配了位于伊朗高原西部的米底王国[13][14],将势力范围扩展至埃及边境[8]。在失去米底王国的控制权后,斯基泰人持续介入中东的地区事务,并在公元前612年的在尼尼微战役中扮演领导角色,摧毁了亚述帝国。斯基泰人随后频密的与波斯帝国发生冲突,但在公元前4世纪先被马其顿重挫[8],随后逐渐被另一支伊朗民族萨尔马提亚人征服[15]。公元前2世纪后期,他们位于克里米亚半岛的首都拿波罗利斯被本都王国的米特里达梯六世占领,他们的地盘被合并到博斯普鲁斯王国[16],并大幅度被希腊化。在公元3世纪,斯基泰人和萨尔马提亚人一同被同为伊朗民族的奄蔡人统治,并一直被哥德人侵扰。中世纪早期,大量的斯基泰人和萨尔马提亚人被同化和吸收到早期斯拉夫民族中[17][18]

斯基泰人在丝绸之路中扮演重要角色,促进了希腊、波斯、印度和中华文明的商业繁荣[19]。在城市定居的金属工匠为斯基泰人所打造的饰品别具风格,后世称之为斯基泰风艺术[20]

名称

字源

语言学家Oswald Szemerényi研究过各种可能是Scythian的同义词后梳理出以下几个字: “Skuthes”(Σκύθης)、“Skudra”、“Sug(u)da”和“Saka”。[21]

  • “Skuthes”(Σκύθης)、“Skudra”、“Sug(u)da”派生自印欧语字根“(s)kewd-”意思是“推进、射击”(与英语的shoot同源)。“*skud-”是同一个字元音变换后的产物。Szemerényi还原了斯基泰人的自称为“*skuda”(大致上是“射手”的意思,也与英语的shooter同源)。这派生出古希腊语“Skuthēs”Σκύθης(“Skuthai” Σκύθαι的众数)以及阿卡德语“Aškuz”。古亚美尼亚语: սկիւթ“skiwtʰ”是基于爱欧塔化的希腊语而生。后来斯基泰语中的辅音由/d/变成/l/,由“*skuda”变成“*skula”,成为了后来希腊语词汇“Skolotoi” (Σκώλοτοι)的字源,也就是希罗多德所提到斯基泰皇室成员的自称,其他的声音改变还产生了“Sogdia”也就是粟特。[22]
  • “Saka”一字则源于古波斯语:“Sakā”,古希腊语:Σάκαι、拉丁语: “Sacae”、梵语:शक“Śaka”皆源自伊朗语的“sak-”,“前进、遨游”也就是“游牧”的意思。尽管关系密切,但萨迦人(Saka)还是和生活在欧洲的斯基泰人有分别,他们主要生活在欧亚大草原的北方和东方以及塔里木盆地。[23][24][25]

现代术语

在学术界,斯基泰人一词一般指涉在公元前7世纪到公元3世纪间活动在东欧大草原的的伊朗游牧民族[26]

斯基泰人与几个生活在他们东方的民族都共享了相似的文化包括武器、马俱和艺术,被称为“斯基泰三角”。[27][28]共享相同特征的文化常被称为“斯基泰文化”,而这些民族也被称为“斯基泰人”。[29][30]与斯基泰文化有联系的民族不止斯基泰人自己,还包括一些截然不同的民族[31],诸如辛梅里安人、马萨革泰人、萨迦人、萨尔马提亚人和各式各样的森林草原民族,[27][29]诸如早期斯拉夫人、波罗的人和芬兰-乌戈尔人。[32][33]在这广义的“斯基泰人”下,一般都会以“古典斯基泰人”、“西斯基泰人”、“欧洲斯基泰人”或“旁狄斯基泰人”作区别。[29]

斯基泰学学家Askold Ivantchik沮丧地指出,“斯基泰人”一词广义和狭义混著来用会造成巨大的混乱。因此他对以“斯基泰人”一词来指公元前7世纪到公元3世纪间统治东欧大草原的伊朗民族有所保留。[27] 狄宇宙写道,“广义的斯基泰的定义根本广到不行”,认为以“早期游牧民族”代替更为可取。[28]

语言

斯基泰语属于印欧语系东伊朗语支[34],但是否所有物质文化受他们影响的族群都说同样的语言目前尚未确定。而与古斯基泰语最接近的是奥塞梯语[35]

萨尔马提亚语、于阗语和萨迦语都有可能斯基泰语所产生的方言连续体[36]

在中世纪早期,斯基泰语因为大量的斯基泰人及其分支族群在随着斯拉夫大迁徙和突厥大迁徙时被征服和同化而被取代,但大量的词汇则因此而流入斯拉夫诸语和突厥诸语中。目前唯一存活的是西部分支的奥塞梯语[37]

外表

根据目前考古所得的艺术品所见,斯基泰人是明显的西欧亚人[38]。而根据欧亚各地区的古文明在公元前5到公元4世纪的历史文献记载,斯基泰人都是白皮肤、红发、蓝或绿眼的[38][39][38][40][38][38][41]

基因

2017年,两份分别发表在《自然-通讯》和《科学报告》期刊的报告指出,斯基泰人的母系血统与东欧的塞那亚文化相同,但同时亦吸收了东欧亚人的母系血统[42][29]

Krzewińska et al. (2018)发现,塞那亚文化的男性成员身上的Y染色体属于单倍群R1a1a1(R1a-M417),而这个单倍群在青钢时代扩张到几乎整个欧亚。相比之下,6具目前在东欧发现的斯基泰人的男性古尸却属于常见于西欧人的R1b1a1a2(R1b-M269)并与阿凡纳谢沃文化、安德罗诺沃文化有紧密关系。作者认为,斯基泰人并非塞那亚文化的直接后代,但他们都源自于颜那亚文化。而斯基泰人与其他物质文化相似的远东族群在基因上有着巨大差异,因此可以判断他们是独立的族群,只是在物质文化上可能有着共同的源头,传播位置大约在东欧大草原东部到乌拉尔山脉南麓[43]

2019年,一份研究物质文化与斯基泰人相似的南西伯利亚欧迪贝尔文化的古尸的报告发表在《人类遗传学》期刊,指出亚欧迪贝尔文化的男性Y染色体属于单倍群R1a,其中有两个是R1a1a1b2(R1a-Z93),并检验到有混合东亚人基因,报告结果表示,斯基泰人与欧迪贝尔文化的族群在父系血统上完全不同[44]

参见

附注或参考

  1. ^ 圣经和合本歌罗西书3:11
  2. ^ 《思高圣经》〈哥罗森书〉3:11:“在这一点上,已没有希腊人或犹太人,受割损的或未受割损的,野蛮人、叔提雅人、奴隶、自由人的分别,而只有是一切并在一切内的基督。”
  3. ^ 联合国教科文组织 (UNESCO) 著,徐文堪、芮传明译:《中亚文明史》,第二卷 (北京:中国对外出版翻译公司,2001),页8-12、20-23。
  4. ^ 周云. 百家廊:尖帽塞人西域影響大. 3月2日 [2008-03-08].
  5. ^
    • Ivantchik 2018: "Scythians, a nomadic people of Iranian origin [...]"
    • Harmatta 1996,第181页: "[B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranian peoples."
    • Sulimirski 1985,第149–153页: "During the first half of the first millennium B.C., c. 3,000 to 2,500 years ago, the southern part of Eastern Europe was occupied mainly by peoples of Iranian stock [...] [T]he population of ancient Scythia was far from being homogeneous, nor were the Scyths themselves a homogeneous people. The country called after them was ruled by their principal tribe, the "Royal Scyths" (Her. iv. 20), who were of Iranian stock and called themselves "Skolotoi" [...]"
    • West 2002,第437–440页: "[T]rue Scyths seems to be those whom [Herodotus] calls Royal Scyths, that is, the group who claimed hegemony [...] apparently warrior-pastoralists. It is generally agreed, from what we know of their names, that these were people of Iranian stock [...]"
    • Rolle 1989,第56页: "The physical characteristics of the Scythians correspond to their cultural affiliation: their origins place them within the group of Iranian peoples."
    • Rostovtzeff 1922,第13页: "The Scythian kingdom [...] was succeeded in the Russian steppes by an ascendancy of various Sarmatian tribes — Iranians, like the Scythians themselves."
    • Minns 2011,第36页: "The general view is that both agricultural and nomad Scythians were Iranian."
  6. ^
    • Dandamayev 1994,第37页: "In modern scholarship the name 'Sakas' is reserved for the ancient tribes of northern and eastern Central Asia and Eastern Turkestan to distinguish them from the related Massagetae of the Aral region and the Scythians of the Pontic steppes. These tribes spoke Iranian languages, and their chief occupation was nomadic pastoralism."
    • Davis-Kimball,Bashilov & Yablonsky(1995),第91页: "Near the end of the 19th century V.F. Miller (1886, 1887) theorized that the Scythians and their kindred, the Sauromatians, were Iranian-speaking peoples. This has been a popular point of view and continues to be accepted in linguistics and historical science [...]"
    • Melykova 1990,第97–98页: "From the end of the 7th century B.C. to the 4th century B.C. the Central- Eurasian steppes were inhabited by two large groups of kin Iranian-speaking tribes – the Scythians and Sarmatians [...]"
    • Melykova 1990,第117页: "All contemporary historians, archeologists and linguists are agreed that since the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes were of the Iranian linguistic group [...]"
    • Sulimirski 1985,第149–153页: "During the first half of the first millennium B.C., c. 3,000 to 2,500 years ago, the southern part of Eastern Europe was occupied mainly by peoples of Iranian stock [...] The main Iranian-speaking peoples of the region at that period were the Scyths and the Sarmatians [...]"
    • Jacobson 1995,第36–37页: "When we speak of Scythians, we refer to those Scytho-Siberians who inhabited the Kuban Valley, the Taman and Kerch peninsulas, Crimea, the northern and northeastern littoral of the Black Sea, and the steppe and lower forest steppe regions now shared between Ukraine and Russia, from the seventh century down to the first century B.C [...] They almost certainly spoke an Iranian language [...]"
  7. ^ Harmatta, János. Zürcher, Erik , 编. The Scythians. UNESCO. 1996: 181-182. ISBN 923102812X.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Scythian. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019].
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Hambly, Gavin. History of Central Asia: Early Western Peoples. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019].
  10. ^ Beckwith 2009,第117页: "The Scythians, or Northern Iranians, who were culturally and ethnolinguistically a single group at the beginning of their expansion, had earlier controlled the entire steppe zone."
  11. ^ Beckwith 2009,第377–380页: "The preservation of the earlier form. *Sakla. in the extreme eastern dialects supports the historicity of the conquest of the entire steppe zone by the Northern Iranians—literally, by the 'Scythians'—in the Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age [...]"
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Beckwith 2009,第11页
  13. ^ Young, T. Cuyler. Ancient Iran: The kingdom of the Medes. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019].
  14. ^ Beckwith 2009,第49页
  15. ^ Sarmatian. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019].
  16. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Harmatta_181的参考文献提供内容
  17. ^ Brzezinski & Mielczarek 2002,第39页: "Indeed, it is now accepted that the Sarmatians merged in with pre-Slavic populations."
  18. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997,第523页: "In their Ukrainian and Polish homeland the Slavs were intermixed and at times overlain by Germanic speakers (the Goths) and by Iranian speakers (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans) in a shifting array of tribal and national configurations."
  19. ^ Beckwith 2009,第58–70页
  20. ^ Scythian art. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [October 4, 2019].
  21. ^ Szemerényi 1980
  22. ^ K. E. Eduljee. Histories by Herodotus, Book 4 Melpomene [4.6]. Zoroastrian Heritage. [October 20, 2020].
  23. ^ Kramrisch, Stella. Central Asian Arts: Nomadic Cultures. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. [September 1, 2018]. The Śaka tribe was pasturing its herds in the Pamirs, central Tien Shan, and in the Amu Darya delta. Their gold belt buckles, jewelry, and harness decorations display sheep, griffins, and other animal designs that are similar in style to those used by the Scythians, a nomadic people living in the Kuban basin of the Caucasus region and the western section of the Eurasian plain during the greater part of the 1st millennium bc.
  24. ^ Lendering, Jona. Scythians / Sacae. Livius.org. February 14, 2019 [October 4, 2019].
  25. ^ Unterländer, Martina. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe. Nature Communications. March 3, 2017, 8: 14615. Bibcode:2017NatCo...814615U. PMC 5337992. PMID 28256537. doi:10.1038/ncomms14615. During the first millennium BC, nomadic people spread over the Eurasian Steppe from the Altai Mountains over the northern Black Sea area as far as the Carpathian Basin [...] Greek and Persian historians of the 1st millennium BCE chronicle the existence of the Massagetae and Sauromatians, and later, the Sarmatians and Sacae: cultures possessing artefacts similar to those found in classical Scythian monuments, such as weapons, horse harnesses and a distinctive ‘Animal Style' artistic tradition. Accordingly, these groups are often assigned to the Scythian culture [...]
  26. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Definition的参考文献提供内容
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 27.2 引用错误:没有为名为Ivantchik的参考文献提供内容
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 Di Cosmo 1999,第891页: "Even though there were fundamental ways in which nomadic groups over such a vast territory differed, the terms "Scythian" and "Scythic" have been widely adopted to describe a special phase that followed the widespread diffusion of mounted nomadism, characterized by the presence of special weapons, horse gear, and animal art in the form of metal plaques. Archaeologists have used the term "Scythic continuum" in a broad cultural sense to indicate the early nomadic cultures of the Eurasian steppe. The term "Scythic" draws attention to the fact that there are elements – shapes of weapons, vessels, and ornaments, as well as lifestyle – common to both the eastern and western ends of the Eurasian steppe region. However, the extension and variety of sites across Asia makes Scythian and Scythic terms too broad to be viable, and the more neutral "early nomadic" is preferable, since the cultures of the Northern Zone cannot be directly associated with either the historical Scythians or any specific archaeological culture defined as Saka or Scytho-Siberian."
  29. ^ 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 Unterländer, Martina. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe. Nature Communications. March 3, 2017, 8: 14615. Bibcode:2017NatCo...814615U. PMC 5337992. PMID 28256537. doi:10.1038/ncomms14615. Greek and Persian historians of the 1st millennium BCE chronicle the existence of the Massagetae and Sauromatians, and later, the Sarmatians and Sacae: cultures possessing artefacts similar to those found in classical Scythian monuments, such as weapons, horse harnesses and a distinctive ‘Animal Style' artistic tradition. Accordingly, these groups are often assigned to the Scythian culture and referred to as ‘Scythians'. For simplification we will use ‘Scythian' in the following text for all groups of Iron Age steppe nomads commonly associated with the Scythian culture.
  30. ^ Watson 1972,第142页: "The term 'Scythic' has been used above to denote a group of basic traits which characterize material culture from the fifth to the first century B.C. in the whole zone stretching from the Transpontine steppe to the Ordos, and without ethnic connotation. How far nomadic populations in central Asia and the eastern steppes may be of Scythian, Iranic, race, or contain such elements makes a precarious speculation."
  31. ^ Bruno & McNiven 2018: "Horse-riding nomadism has been referred to as the culture of 'Early Nomads'. This term encompasses different ethnic groups (such as Scythians, Saka, Massagetae, and Yuezhi) [...]"
  32. ^ West 2002,第437–440页
  33. ^ Davis-Kimball,Bashilov & Yablonsky(1995),第33页
  34. ^ Lubotsky 2002,第190页
  35. ^ Ladislav Zgusta, "The old Ossetian Inscription from the River Zelenčuk" (Veröffentlichungen der Iranischen Kommission = Sitzungsberichte der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse 486) Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1987. ISBN 3-7001-0994-6 in Kim, op.cit., 54.
  36. ^ Lubotsky 2002,第189–202页
  37. ^ Testen 1997,第707页
  38. ^ 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 Day 2001,第55–57页
  39. ^ Hippocrates 1886, 20 "The Scythians are a ruddy race because of the cold, not through any fierceness in the sun's heat. It is the cold that burns their white skin and turns it ruddy."
  40. ^ Callimachus 1921, Hymn IV. To Delos. 291 "The first to bring thee these offerings fro the fair-haired Arimaspi [...]"
  41. ^ Pliny 1855, Book VI, Chap. 24 ". These people, they said, exceeded the ordinary human height, had flaxen hair, and blue eyes [...]"
  42. ^ Juras, Anna. Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians. Nature Communications. March 7, 2017, 7: 43950. Bibcode:2017NatSR...743950J. PMC 5339713. PMID 28266657. doi:10.1038/srep43950.
  43. ^ Krzewińska, Maja. Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads. Nature Communications. 2018-10-03.
  44. ^ Mary, Laura. Genetic kinship and admixture in Iron Age Scytho-Siberians. Human Genetics. March 28, 2019, 138 (4): 411–423. PMID 30923892. doi:10.1007/s00439-019-02002-y. The absence of R1b lineages in the Scytho-Siberian individuals tested so far and their presence in the North Pontic Scythians suggest that these 2 groups had a completely different paternal lineage makeup with nearly no gene flow from male carriers between them 已忽略未知参数|s2cid= (帮助)

参考文献

延伸阅读

  • Alekseev, A. Yu. et al., "Chronology of Eurasian Scythian Antiquities Born by New Archaeological and 14C Data". Radiocarbon, Vol .43, No 2B, 2001, p 1085–1107.
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. 1st Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).
  • Gamkrelidze and Ivanov (1984). Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical Typological Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture (Parts I and II). Tbilisi State University.
  • Harmatta, J., "Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians", Acta Universitatis de Attila József Nominatae. Acta antique et archaeologica Tomus XIII. Szeged 1970, Kroraina.com
  • (德文) Jaedtke, Wolfgang. Steppenkind, Piper Verlag, Munich 2008. ISBN 978-3-492-25146-4. This novel contains detailed descriptions of the life of nomadic Scythians around 700 BC.
  • Johnson, James William, "The Scythian: His Rise and Fall", Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Apr., 1959), pp. 250–257, University of Pennsylvania Press, JSTOR
  • Lebedynsky, I. (2001). "Les Scythes: la civilisation nomade des steppes VIIe–IIIe siècle av. J.-C." / Errance, Paris.
  • Lebedynsky Iaroslav (2006) "Les Saces", Editions Errance, ISBN 2-87772-337-2
  • Mallory, J.P. (1989). In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language Archeology and Myth. Thames and Hudson. Chapter 2; and pages 51–53 for a quick reference.
  • Newark, T. (1985). The Barbarians: Warriors and wars of the Dark Ages. Blandford: New York. See pages 65, 85, 87, 119–139.
  • Renfrew, C. (1988). Archeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European origins. Cambridge University Press.
  • Rolle, Renate, The world of the Scythians, London and New York (1989).
  • (俄文) Rybakov, Boris. Paganism of Ancient Rus. Nauka, Moscow, 1987
  • Torday, Laszlo (1998). Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham Academic Press. ISBN 1-900838-03-6.

外部链接

Ryzhanovka
Genetics

本页面最后更新于2021-05-30 10:17,点击更新本页查看原网页。台湾为中国固有领土,本站将对存在错误之处的地图、描述逐步勘正。

本站的所有资料包括但不限于文字、图片等全部转载于维基百科(wikipedia.org),遵循 维基百科:CC BY-SA 3.0协议

万维百科为维基百科爱好者建立的公益网站,旨在为中国大陆网民提供优质内容,因此对部分内容进行改编以符合中国大陆政策,如果您不接受,可以直接访问维基百科官方网站


顶部

如果本页面有数学、化学、物理等公式未正确显示,请使用火狐或者Safari浏览器