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希腊正教会本文重定向自 希腊东正教

希腊正教(正教会,下方蓝色线条)与其他基督教派的分流、关系图

希腊正教会希腊语Ελληνορθόδοξη Εκκλησία,英语:Greek Orthodox Church)是罗马帝国国家教会分裂后,罗马正教会的几个教会统称[1][2][3],其神学根植于早期教父以及拜占庭文化,礼拜仪式使用通用希腊语[4][5][6]。与普世牧首共融。其起源于近东的早期基督教以及拜占庭帝国,当代东正教修道活动最重要的中心为在埃及西奈半岛圣凯瑟琳修道院和以及马其顿阿索斯山

东西教会大分裂时与罗马天主教会各分东西,并与斯拉夫等正教会共融成为东正教会

沿革

希腊正教的起源可以追溯到公元一世纪的巴尔干中东地区教会[7][8][9][10][11][12][13],它保留了许多古代教会的传统。[13]希腊正教以及普世正教会不像天主教一样以单一主教管辖,如教宗,而是由多个自主教会组成一个群集。并由君士坦丁堡普世牧首为平等的精神领袖。

希腊正教重视与其他东正教教会(如俄罗斯东正教)的团结与交流。东正教有着共同的教义和崇拜仪式,他们认为自己不是一个个独立的教会,而是作为同一个教会的一小部分。希腊正教最著名的是其保有丰富意象的传统(参见:拜占庭艺术)、对上帝圣母的崇拜、以及使用可以追溯到公元四世纪,由圣约翰创立的富有东正教特色的事奉圣礼

现今有部分希腊东正教徒,其祖先历史可以追溯到拜占庭和奥斯曼时期,他们的祖先使用阿拉伯语希腊语,生活在土耳其南部、以色列巴勒斯坦伊拉克叙利亚黎巴嫩约旦埃及。他们使用阿拉伯语且保持了拜占庭的希腊文化传统。[14][15][16]君士坦丁堡在基督教创立以来的前八个世纪,其在罗马帝国的影响范围内是基督教最重要的智慧,文化和社会发展与传承中心[16][17][18][19],而今日希腊正教的大多数仪式、传统和做法至今仍然在君士坦丁堡教会运作。于公元10世纪,希腊正教使得斯拉夫民族开始发展文明以及与其他欧洲国家接触,并发展出了斯拉夫正教会礼仪。[20][21] [22][22][23][23][24]

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参考文献

  1. ^ Demetrios J. Constantelos, Understanding the Greek Orthodox Church, Holy Cross Orthodox Press 3rd edition (March 28, 2005)
  2. ^ L. Rushton, Doves and magpies: village women in the Greek Orthodox Church Women's religious experience, Croom Helm, 1983
  3. ^ Paul Yuzyk, The Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada, 1918–1951, University of Ottawa Press, 1981
  4. ^ Demetrios J. Constantelos, The Greek Orthodox Church: faith, history, and practice, Seabury Press, 1967
  5. ^ Daniel B. Wallace: Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, page 12,. Zondervan, 1997.
  6. ^ Robert H. Stein: The method and message of Jesus' teachings, page 4,. Westminster John Knox Press, 1994.
  7. ^ Janet Saltzman Chafetz; Helen Rose Ebaugh. Religion and the New Immigrants: Continuities and Adaptations in Immigrant Congregations. AltaMira Press. 18 October 2000: 155 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-7591-1712-9. The distinctive characteristics of the Greek Orthodox Church are its sense of continuity with the ancient Church of Christ and the Apostles and its changelessness. The Orthodox church traces its existence, through the ordinatinon of Bishops. directly back to the Apostles and through them to Jesus.
  8. ^ Sally Bruyneel; Alan G. Padgett. Introducing Christianity. Orbis Books. 2003: 7 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-1-60833-134-5. The Eastern Orthodox and thye Roman Catholic Churches are the oldest with roots going back to the earliest Christian groups.
  9. ^ Benjamin Jerome Hubbard; John T. Hatfield; James A. Santucci. An Educator's Classroom Guide to America's Religious Beliefs and Practices. Libraries Unlimited. 2007: 63 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-1-59158-409-4. The Orthodox Church traces its origins to the churches founded by the apostles in the Middle East and the Balkans in the first century.
  10. ^ Robert L. Plummer. Journeys of Faith: Evangelicalism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Anglicanism. Zondervan. 6 March 2012: 128 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-310-41671-5. Catholicism holds that if a Church claims to be Christian, then it must be able to show that its leaders-its bishops and its presbyters (or priests)- are successors of the apostles. That is why the Catholic Church accepts Eastern Orthodox ordinations and sacraments as valid, even though Eastern Orthodoxy is not in full communion with Rome.
  11. ^ William A. Dyrness; Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen. Global Dictionary of Theology: A Resource for the Worldwide Church. InterVarsity Press. 25 September 2009: 244 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-8308-7811-6. This connection is apparent through the historical succession of bishops of churches in a particular geographic locale and by fidelity to the teachings of the apostles (cf. Acts 2:42) and life as it developed in the patristic tradition and was articulated by the seven ecumenical councils.
  12. ^ Heidi A Campbell. When Religion Meets New Media. Routledge. 22 March 2010: 13 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-203-69537-1. There are three branches within Christianity: Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant. ... The Christian church draws its lineage and roots from the time of Jesus Christ and the apostles in CE 25–30 and the birth of the Church at Pentecost in ...
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Wendy Doniger. Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. January 1999: 309 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. EASTERN ORTHODOXY, one of the major branches of CHRISTIANITY, characterized by its continuity with the apostolic church, its liturgy, and its territorial churches.
  14. ^ Byzantium in Encyclopedia of historians and historical writing Vol. 1, Kelly Boyd (ed.), Fitzroy Dearborn publishers, 1999页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) ISBN 978-1-884964-33-6
  15. ^ Edwin Pears, The destruction of the Greek Empire and the story of the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, Haskell House, 1968
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Millar, Fergus. A Greek Roman Empire : power and belief under Theodosius II (408–450). University of California Press. 2006: 279 pages. ISBN 0-520-24703-5.
  17. ^ Tanner, Norman P. The Councils of the Church, ISBN 978-0-8245-1904-9
  18. ^ The Byzantine legacy in the Orthodox Church by John Meyendorff – 1982
  19. ^ Hugh Wybrew, The Orthodox liturgy: the development of the eucharistic liturgy in the Byzantine rite – 1990
  20. ^ The Christian Churches of the East, Vol. II: Churches Not in Communion with Rome by Donald Attwater – 1962
  21. ^ J Meyendorff, Byzantine Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes (1987)
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Joan M. Hussey, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, 1990
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 A. P. Vlasto, Entry of Slavs Christendom – 1970
  24. ^ Andreĭ Lazarov Pantev, Bŭlgarska istorii︠a︡ v evropeĭski kontekst – 2000

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