万维百科

奇普

Quipu.png

奇普QuipuKhipu)是古代印加人的一种结绳记事的方法,用来计数或者记录历史。它是由许多颜色的绳结编成的,不同的绳结有不同的含义。这种结绳记事方法已经失传,目前还没有人能够了解其全部含义。这种计数方法在美国华盛顿国立美国印第安人博物馆的长期展览“伟大的印加之路”(The Great Inka Road)中有实物展览,并附有诠释。

奇普因其特殊的打结方法,可从视觉上分辨结数(绕圈数)。其计数方法为,以单条绳上的结数数量及位置进行组合记录。位于绳下部的绳结数量,可表示从一到九的数字,十,百,千等量级则以单独绳结依次在绳高位打结作为记录。若该数字为个位数(1-9),则该绳绳结数量不超于九。

举例,若一条绳底部为七结,中部为三结,顶部一结,则该条绳表示的数字为137。

注释

  1. ^ Neuman, William. Untangling an Accounting Tool and an Ancient Incan Mystery. ***. 2016-01-02 [2016-01-12] (英语).

参考文献

  • Adrien, Kenneth. Andean Worlds: Indigenous History, Culture and Consciousness. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 2001. ISBN 978-0-8263-2359-0.
  • The Archaeological Institute of America. Conversations: String Theorist. Archaeology. November–December 2005, 58 (6). ISSN 0003-8113.
  • Ascher, Marcia; Ascher, Robert. Code of the Quipu: Databook. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1978. ASIN B0006X3SV4.
  • Ascher, Marcia; Ascher, Robert. Code of the Quipu: A Study in Media, Mathematics, and Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1980. ISBN 978-0-472-09325-0.
  • Brokaw, Galen. A History of the Khipu. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-19779-3.
  • Cook, Gareth. Untangling the Mystery of the Inca. Wired. January 2007, 15 (1). ISSN 1059-1028.
  • D'Altroy, Terrence N. The Incas. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing. 2001. ISBN 978-0-631-17677-0.
  • Day, Cyrus Lawrence. Quipus and witches' knots; the role of the knot in primitive and ancient cultures. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 1967. OCLC 1446690. 已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)
  • Hyland, Sabine. Writing with Twisted Cords: The Inscriptive Capacity of Andean Khipus. Current Anthropology. 2017, 58 (3): 412–419. ISSN 0011-3204. S2CID 164759609. doi:10.1086/691682. hdl:10023/12326可免费使用. Web access
  • Niles, Susan A. Considering Quipus: Andean Knotted String Records in Analytical Context. Reviews in Anthropology (Taylor and Francis). 2007, 36: 85–102. ISSN 0093-8157. S2CID 161544309. doi:10.1080/00938150601177629.
  • Nordenskiold, Erland. The Secret of the Peruvian Quipus. 1925. OCLC 2887018.
  • Peters, Renata; Salomon, Frank. Patrimony and partnership: conserving the khipu legacy of Rapaz, Peru. Archaeology International (London: UCL Institute of Archaeology). 2006–2007: 41–44. ISSN 1463-1725.
  • Piechota, Dennis. Storage Containerization Archaeological Textile Collections. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation. 1978, 18 (1): 10–18. JSTOR 3179387. doi:10.2307/3179387.
  • Saez-Rodríguez, A. (2012). An Ethnomathematics Exercise for Analyzing a Khipu Sample from Pachacamac (Perú). Revista Latinoamericana de Etnomatemática. 5(1), 62–88.
  • Salomon, Frank. How an Andean 'Writing Without Words' Works. Current Anthropology. 2001, 42 (1): 1–27. doi:10.1086/318435.
  • Salomon, Frank. The Cord Keepers: Khipus and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village. Durham: Duke University Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0-8223-3379-1. OCLC 54929904.
  • Salomon, Frank; Peters, Renata. Collaboration of Carrie Brezine, Gino de las Casas Ríos, Víctor Falcón Huayta, Rosa Choque Gonzales, and Rosalía Choque Gonzales. Governance and Conservation of the Rapaz Khipu Patrimony. Paper Delivered at Interdisciplinary Workshop on Intangible Heritage (Collaborative for Cultural Heritage and Museum Practices, Urbana-Champaign, IL). 31 March 2007.
  • Urton, Gary. From Knots to Narratives: Reconstructing the Art of Historical Record Keeping in the Andes from Spanish Transcriptions of Inka Khipus. Ethnohistory. 1998, 45 (5): 409–438. JSTOR 483319. doi:10.2307/483319.
  • Urton, Gary. Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records. Austin: University of Texas Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-292-78539-7. OCLC 50323023.
  • Urton, Gary; Carrie Brezine. The Khipu Database Project. 2003–2004. (原始内容存档于April 27, 2006).
  • Urton, Gary. Tying the Archive in Knots, or: Dying to get into the Archive in Ancient Peru. Archives and Records (Routledge, Taylor and Francis Groupe). 2011. ISSN 0037-9816.
  • Urton, Gary. 2017. Inka history in knots. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  • Domenici, Davide. Talking Knots of the Inka. Archaeology. 1996, 49 (6): 13–24.
  • Locke, Leland. The Ancient Quipu, a Peruvian Knot Record. American Anthropologist. 1912, 14 (2): 325–332. doi:10.1525/aa.1912.14.2.02a00070.
  • National Geographic. Accounting Cords. 1996 [2016-03-31]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-08).

外部链接


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