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反民族主义

反民族主义是指反对视自己民族最高尚的思想或认为自己民族特殊和优越于其他民族的狭隘民族身份认同思想。

反民族主义是一种反对对民族、种族、与国家等概念狭隘认同、极端捍卫的意识形态,该主义主张“人类都是一家人”的“基本思想”。通俗地说,反民族主义主张:人类都是同一物种,不应该刻意地以文化认同来作为国家存亡的基础,以及“各民族有平等行使义务之权”。类似的思想有世界政府地球联邦之类的提议,以“人类共荣”而非“民族兴盛”作为基础的思想。[1]

发展

反民族主义现在为止还没有一个特殊的组织或倡导者以及团体。然而,二战后对于民族身份的认同以及极端地将自己民族作为大民族,并希望民族能富强的思想变得非常激进。

圣经》和《古兰经》的人祖观都反对了这种“血统民族论”,早期也有类似的反民族主义的政体,例如:政教合一梵蒂冈阿拉伯帝国哈里发时期等等,也是以多民族共荣的主权政体。

争议

有些民族主义者认为:“一个国家的富强是需要国民对自己的文化身份认同作为基础来发展。”如果缺少这种民族身份强烈的认同,便会很难使一个国家富强及保持社会稳定。

有不少人认为反民族主义者混淆了民族主义极端民族主义的分别,认为主要应该反对极端民族主义而非一般的民族主义。一般的民族主义指的是把民族利益放在首要情况下,却不会逼害其他民族,或认为高人一等民族优越感,而是能互相地和平共,互相尊重彼此的文化和传统。

香港高级程度会考的历史书对极端民族主义定义为人们会因为“过分”追求“民族优越”或不同原因而对其他民族进行侵略。

著名人物

相关

参考文献

  1. ^ The Return of the National Question页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) by Chris Harman, a Trotskyist analysis and critique of nationalism.
  2. ^ Ronald Beiner. Hannah Arendt as a Critic of Nationalism. Liberalism, Nationalism, Citizenship: Essays on the problem of political community. UBC Press. 2003: 129–147.
  3. ^ " Capek not only mocks his fellow-countrymen for wallowing in past sufferings but shrewdly shows how this kind of pride in humiliation can be fostered in others...He is opposed to nationalism, yet he argues for the importance of culture; he writes in Czech, yet he wields his language as a weapon against the whole of his contemporary world." Elizabeth Maslen, "Proper Words in Proper Places: The Challenge of Čapek's页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) "War with the Newts". Science Fiction Studies March 1987.
  4. ^ Pride and Blessing. youtube.com. It's Bad for Ya. [2018-02-08]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-16).
  5. ^ Viereck, George Sylvester, What Life Means to Einstein: An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck (PDF), The Saturday Evening Post, October 26, 1929: 117 [19 May 2013], (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2019-02-05)
  6. ^ "Forster was famously a "little Englander". But this meant that he disliked the Imperialist enterprise, distrusted patriotism, and anxiously celebrated internationalism." John Lucas, The Radical Twenties : aspects of writing, politics and culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves, 1997. ISBN 0907123171 (p. 212)
  7. ^ "We dedicate ourselves to a relentless fight against Fascism and War, Imperialism, nationalism, humanism, liberalism, idealism, anarchist individualism, the doctrine of art for art's sake, religious fideism and dogmas emanating in general from any party or person capable of exploitation by capitalism to justify its perpetuation".David Gascoyne,"A First English Surrealist Manifesto",(1935) in Robert Fraser, Night Thoughts : the surreal life of the poet David Gascoyne.Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780199558148 (p.79).
  8. ^ "Conceit, arrogance and egotism are the essentials of patriotism. Let me illustrate. Patriotism assumes that our globe is divided into little spots, each one surrounded by an iron gate." What is Patriotism?页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  9. ^ A New Flag (Patriotism). youtube.com. Rant in E-Minor. [2018-02-08]. (原始内容存档于2018-12-08).
  10. ^ World Book Encyclopedia, 1990 ed., s.v. "Iqbal, Sir Muhammad"
  11. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Christian的参考文献提供内容
  12. ^ "A large part of Vernon Lee's writing is a sustained and at times bitter attack on what she regarded as serious evils-waste, the position of woman, vivisection, art for art's sake, nationalism, war." Peter Gunn, Vernon Lee: Violet Paget, 1856-1935. London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1964.(p.149)
  13. ^ "[Vernon] Lee's absolute rejection of patriotism isolated her from many even in the UDC circle."Patrick Wright,Iron Curtain: From Stage to Cold War. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780199231508.
  14. ^ Lenin: Corrupting the Workers with Refined Nationalism. [2018-02-08]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-24).
  15. ^ "Rosa Luxemburg remained steadfastly anti-war and anti-nationalist" Jan Jindy Pettman, Worlding Women: A Feminist International Politics New York: Routledge, 2005 ISBN 1134744900 (p. 110).
  16. ^ "Marxism postulated the formation of the proletariat as a force that transcended national identities and that operated on a supranational. Because of this, from its earliest beginnings, Marxism viewed nationalism as a rival and an enemy". Roman Szporluk, Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx Versus Friedrich List, Oxford University Press, 1988, pg. 14.
  17. ^ "Of course he [Mumford] opposed militarism and nationalism in all its forms and later condemned the Nazi ideology that justified a totalitarian social order by attaching place-"the soil"- to race". Mark Luccarelli,Lewis Mumford and The Ecological Region : The Politics Of Planning. New York : Guilford Press, 1995. ISBN 1572300019 (p.24.)
  18. ^ 存档副本. [2017-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2017-01-07).
  19. ^ Who Speaks for Earth. Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. 1980-12-21 [2018-02-08]. (原始内容存档于2018-04-22).
  20. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为morality的参考文献提供内容
  21. ^ "Nationalism does nothing but teach you how to hate people that you never met." No Refunds页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  22. ^ Landscapes of Hope: Anti-Colonial Utopianism in America by Dohra Ahmad. Oxford University Press, 2009 (pp. 94-6)
  23. ^ "Patriotism in its simplest, clearest and most indubitable signification is nothing else but a means of obtaining for the rulers their ambitions and covetous desires, and for the ruled the abdication of human dignity, reason and conscience, and a slavish enthrallment to those in power. And as such it is recommended wherever it may be preached.
    Patriotism is slavery." Patriotism and Christianity, Leo Tolstoy.
  24. ^ 存档副本. [2018-02-08]. (原始内容存档于2018-12-08).
  25. ^ "Veblen was against nationalism because it involves wasteful, honorific, and hence barbaric rituals, ceremonies, and related phenomena". Quoted in "Introduction" by Stjepan G. Mestrovic to Thorstein Veblen by 大卫·理斯曼. Transaction Publishers, 1953 (p. xvi)
  26. ^ "If I am opposed to nationalism and war, it is not merely because these things represent an immense waste of energy, but because they sustain a cant of blind discipline and loyalty ..." H.G. Wells, interview in Living Philosophies, edited by Clifton Fadiman. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1931. (p.91
  27. ^ "H.G. Wells rejects patriotism and nationalism in this intentionally provocative talk, speaking of his great desire for a future 'world unity' where barriers between countries are dissolved. While acknowledging his own great pride in being an Englishman, Wells decries both the increasing nationalism that is plaguing the world and the march towards war, a catastrophe that many believe is now inevitable, while still hoping for peace and co-operation if the courage and imagination can be found." HG Wells challenges the idea of 'Britain for the British'页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  28. ^ "Woolf deeply distrusted patriotism and nationalism, believing they cwars; such feelings were particularly ill-suited to women living in a patriarchy, whose stake in society was significantly different from that of men." Julia Briggs, Reading Virginia Woolf. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2006. ISBN 9780748624348 (p. 15).



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