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全球公民意识

广义而言,全球公民意识世界公民意识一般典型的定义是具备“以全球为一家”的意识观念超越他个人的特定国家意识或在地意识之个人。这样的想法意味着他的认同超越了地理或政治的界限,认为整个地球的人类群体是相互影响的整体。这个专有名词已经可见于教育以及政治哲学中,同时许多如“世界公民”以及“世界化(世界主义)”的社会运动也被普遍的使用。

定义

“公民意识(citizenship)”意思是个人与某个地理区域(如一座城市、一个国家或民族)之间的身份认同以及个人在一地工作、生活与参与政治的权利。当公民意识一词跟“全球”结合,通常意指此人对“国际社群”的公民身份认同,会要高过其对自己的民族国家或是城市的身份认同。这代表着其身份认同是超越“地理”或“政治”的边界,而其认同的责任与权利界线是归类在“人道精神”。这并不代表这类人士会放弃自己的国籍或其他在地的身份认同,而是会这一类身份认同放在较国际社群之后的“次要位置”[1]。延伸下来,世界公民意识的概念也引导人们思考在全球化的时代,全球社会现状的相关议题[2]

一般而言,这个词语的定义跟“世界公民(World Citizen)”或是世界主义等同,但在不同场合的使用情境下也可能有更广义或更特殊的意义。

用途

教育

在教育界,全球公民意识这个词最常被用来描述教育人们的某种世界观价值观(例如由联合国秘书长所主导的“全球教育第一倡议”)[3]。“全球社会”一词有时也会用来描述提供学生成为全球公民的全球研究学习目标(例如佛罗里达大学“全球社会下之人文学科”荣誉学程)[4]

全球公民意识教育

在教育系统中,全球公民意识教育(英语:Global Citizenship education,簡稱為GCE)已经逐渐取代了过去多种不同的教育改革倡议或运动,诸如多元文化主义教育、和平教育人权教育永续发展教育英语Education for sustainable development、以及国际教育英语international education[5] 。 除此之外全球公民意识也快速地融合了上述的运动。全球公民的概念也已经连结到人道救援的奖项[6] 。老师们也被认为是创造社会改变的一分子[7]──里兹大学公民与人权中心的执行长奥黛莉·厄斯乐(Audrey Osler)指出“教育大家我们是一起生活在一个互相倚赖的世界里,这并不是个外加的选项,而是必须的基础。[8]

Noteworthy, Global Education Magazine页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) is a digital journal supported by UNESCO and UNHCR, inspired in the universal values of the Declaration of Emerging Human Rights that aims to contribute to achieve the Millennium Development Goals页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) by GCE consciousness.[9] An initiative launched by the teaching team that formulated the proposal most voted in the group “Sustainable Development for the Eradication of Poverty in Rio+20英语Rio+20”.[10]

With GCE gaining attention, scholars are investigating the field and developing perspectives. The following are a few of the more common perspectives:

  • Critical and transformative perspective. Citizenship is defined by being a member with rights and responsibilities. Therefore, GCE must encourage active involvement. GCE can be taught from a critical and transformative页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) perspective, whereby students are thinking, feeling, and doing. In this approach, GCE requires students to be politically critical and personally transformative. Teachers provide social issues页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) in a neutral and grade-appropriate way for students to understand, grapple with, and do something about.[11]
  • Worldmindedness. Graham Pike and David Selby view GCE as having two strands. Worldmindedness, the first strand, refers to understanding the world as one unified system and a responsibility to view the interests of individual nations with the overall needs of the planet in mind. The second strand, Child-centeredness页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), is a pedagogical approach that encourages students to explore and discover on their own and addresses each learner as an individual with inimitable beliefs, experiences, and talents.[12]
  • Holistic Understanding. The Holistic Understanding perspective was founded by Merry Merryfield, focusing on understanding the self in relation to a global community. This perspective follows a curriculum that attends to human values and beliefs, global systems, issues, history, cross-cultural页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) understandings, and the development of analytical页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) and evaluative页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) skills.[7]
  • 哲学

    观点

    地理、主权

    在地、国内、以及全球势力之间的紧张关系

    人权

    联合国大会

    美国独立宣言

    支持全球政府论者

    社会运动

    世界公民

    世界化

    地球国歌

    争议

    参见

    • 全球教育杂志
    • 世界主义
    • 地球国歌
    • 世界护照 Oearth提议太空旅游签证
    • Global civics
    • Global Citizens Movement
    • Global democracy
    • Global justice
    • Globality
    • 网民
    • Planetary Consciousness
    • Postnationalism
    • Think globally, act locally
    • Transnationalism
    • 联合国以及联合国议会大会
    • World Federalist Movement

    参考文献

    1. ^ Summer 2012).. [2015-07-30]. (原始内容存档于2013-09-21).
    2. ^ Shaw, Martin. Global Society and International Relations: Sociological Concepts and Political Perspectives. Cambridge: Polity Press. 2000 [2015-07-30]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14).
    3. ^ "Priority #3: Foster Global Citizenship.". [2015-07-30]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-14).
    4. ^ Humanities for a Global Society. University of Florida. [6 July 2013]. (原始内容存档于2013年6月17日).
    5. ^ Australian Government (2008). Global Perspectives: A framework for global education in Australian schools. Carlton South Victoria, Australia: Curriculum Corporation. ISBN 978 1 74200 075 6
    6. ^ Jim Luce. Euro-American Women' s Council Global Forum and Awards Set For Athens in July. Huffington Post. 1 June 2010 [2010-06-16]. (原始内容存档于2011-06-07). Dionysia-Theodora Avgerinopoulou is a Member of the Hellenic Parliament. She is also on the Executive Global Board of the EAWC. Orphans International Worldwide (OIWW) awarded her its Global Citizenship Award for Leadership in Helping Humanity in New York in February.
    7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Mundy, K., et al. (eds). Comparative and International Education. New York: Economic Policy Institute and Teachers College. ISBN 978-0807748817
    8. ^ Osler, Audrey and Hugh Starkey (2010). Teachers and Human Rights Education. London:Trentham Books. ISBN 978-1858563848
    9. ^ Global Education Magazine (2012). The Humanist Quantum Interference: Towards the "Homo Conscienciatus". Javier Collado Ruano, October 17th: International Day for the Eradication of Poverty. ISSN 2255-033X. [2015-07-31]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-24).
    10. ^ NGO Educar para Vivir (2012). [2015-07-31]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-24).
    11. ^ O’Sullivan, M. (2008). "You can’t criticize what you don’t understand: Teachers as social change agents in neo liberal times." Pp. 113-126 in O’Sullivan, Michael & K. Pashby (eds.) Citizenship in the era of globalization: Canadian perspectives. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
    12. ^ Pike, G. & D. Selby (2000). In the Global Classroom 2. Toronto: Pippin.

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