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中美洲蹴球

座落在奇琴伊察的蹴球场

中美洲蹴球(西班牙语:juego de pelota mesoamericano;纳瓦特尔语:tlachtli o ōllamalīztli)(Mesoamerican ballgame)是一种发源于中美洲的球类活动,有超过三千年的历史。现时一些地方的美洲土著仍有进行这项运动。由于这运动的历史悠久,它的详细规则随时间和地点而有所不同。一般而言,这运动是两人或两方对赛。

中美洲蹴球所使用的球是硬胶质,而球场则是长形的。球场的两边筑有高台,使球不致飞出场外。有时在球场的两端会立柱。

球员需以把球送过对方的石环。

蹴球场在中美洲各处都有设立。在一些地区,几乎所有较大的遗址都有蹴球场,其他地区则可能少一些。现存最大的蹴球场长166,宽68米。

意义

发现蹴球场的地区

蹴球除了是当地人(包括儿童)的休闲活动,也具有宗教意义。正式的比赛常被认为是天上明或地下世界的主宰之间的斗争,而球本身代表太阳

在正式比赛中,落败一方的领队会被斩首或取出心脏以作活祭品,他的头骨会被用作新球的球心。

关于比赛后的献祭,另有一说法,即胜者献祭:根据中美洲文明对于宗教的热情,成为祭品被认为是神圣的,部分学者依照此点推测奉献应该是属于荣耀,所以献祭应为胜利者。

但亦有地方如奇琴伊察,胜利一方或落败一方的领队被用作牺牲的说法同时存在。

蹴球是古代中美洲艺术的重要题材。很多中美洲古文明的雕刻壁画等均有关于蹴球的描述,大大方便了现代人对该活动的研究。

参考文献

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延伸阅读

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Metropolitan Museum of Art. Recent Acquisitions, A selection 2001–2002. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 2002, LX (2). ISSN 0026-1521.
Miller, Mary Ellen. The Maya Ballgame: Rebirth in the Court of Life and Death. The Sport of Life and Death: The Mesoamerican Ballgame Published in conjunction with an exhibition of the same name organized by the Mint Museum of Art英语Mint Museum of Art, Charlotte, NC. New York: Thames & Hudson英语Thames & Hudson. 2001: 20–31. ISBN 0-500-05108-9. OCLC 49029226.
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Zender, Mark. Glyphs for "Handspan" and "Strike" in Classic Maya Ballgame Texts (PDF). The PARI Journal. 2004, IV (4) [2019-01-28]. ISSN 0003-8113. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2008-09-10).

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