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中等强国

中等强国(英语:Middle power)是一个于国际关系中使用的一个词。中等强国是用来描述一些并非超级大国列强,但在国际上有一定影响力的国家国际社会仍未对中等强国的定义有共识

定义

中等强国并没有统一的定义。某些研究人员以GNP来划分中等强国。在经济方面来说,中等强国普遍上是指国家的经济体系不大,但也不小。但是,经济并不是划分中等强国的标准。在原本的定义中,中等强国指一个国家对国际某程度上有一些影响力,但其影响力并不遍布世界每个角落。但是,这个定义并没有成为标准。因此,某些中等强国列表中可能包含“大国”或“小国”。

中等强国的外交

G-20 的会议。G-20众国中,大部分国家都是中等强国,只有小部分才是大国。

中等强国外交特点:[1]

  • 通过全球性组织进行多方合作和与其他中等强国结盟。[2]
  • 对外政策有极大程度的公民社会的参与。
  • 国家认同建立并反映于“新颖的外交政策”上,如维持和平、人类安全保障、加入国际刑事法院、参加京都议定书等环保条约等。

中等强国列表

以下是一个中等强国列表,所有被列出的国家皆被学者或专家承认其中等强国的地位。只是中等强国和大国之间的重复国家,以及中等强国和小国之间的重复国家,其边界定义模糊。

 美国 中华人民共和国 俄罗斯 英国 法国都是大国,而非中等强国,全因其军事和战略地位显赫,以及其有核国家联合国安理会常任理事国的地位。而 美国更加是全球唯一的超级大国

有些学者或专家也认为 日本 德国 印度 巴西都是大国,而非中等强国。原因是这四国,为最有实力争取联合国安全理事会常任理事国扩增改革的新成员候选国;这四国并组成四国联盟,希望通过相互支持,推动未来改革的成功。此外,这四国在国际间也拥有不小的影响力,其中 日本 德国七大工业国组织成员国,而 印度 巴西则是金砖成员国。

参见

参考

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